This page is a long alphabetical listing of all available information on Russian and Former Soviet Union avionics items (radar, IRST, EO, ECM etc) from 1950 to today. Use the search facility in your browser to search for the item you wish to find.

Main Sources

MiG-21 (4+ Publications)
MiG-23 (4+ Publications)
MiG-29 (4+ Publications)
Su-22M4 (4+ Publications)
Su-25 (4+ Publications)
Artemyev, Anatoliy Tu-142 in Donald, David Ed. (2002) Tupolev Bombers
Artemyev, Anatoliy Tu-16 'Badger'- Maid of all work in Donald, David Ed. (2002) Tupolev Bombers
Belyakov, R.A. and Marmain, J (1991) MiG 1939-1989 (Docavia 33)
Bedretdinov, Ildar (2002) The Attack Aircraft Su-25 and its Derivatives
Butowski, Piotr (1996, 1997) Lotnictwo Wojskowe Rosji (3 Vols)
Butowski, Piotr Tu-95 in Donald, David Ed. (2002) Tupolev Bombers
Butowski, Piotr, (1993) Su-25, Su-34 (Monografie Lotnicze 9)
Butowski, Piotr, Pankov, V. & Ponomariev, V (1994) Su-15 Flagon (Monografie Lotnicze 14)
Donald, David & Lake, John ed. Encyclopedia of World Military Aircraft
Fomin, Andrei (2000) Su-27 Flanker Story
Gordon, Yefim (1997) Su-15 (Prezeglad Konstrukcji Lotniczych 31)
Gordon, Yefim (1997) MiG-25 Foxbat and MiG-31 Foxhound (Aerofax)
Gordon, Yefim (1999) MiG-29 Fulcrum
Gordon, Yefim (1999) Su-27 Flanker
Gordon, Yefim (2001) Sukhoi S-37 and Mikoyan MFI (Red Star Volume 1)
Gordon, Yefim (2003) Tupolev Tu-160 Blackjack (Red Star Volume 9)
Gordon, Yefim (2004) Sukhoi Interceptors (Red Star Volume 16)
Gunston, Bill & Gordon, Yefim (1997) MiG Aircraft Since 1937
Lake, John (1997) How to Fly and Fight in the Mikoyan MiG-29 Fulcrum
Linn, Don and Spering, Don (1993) MiG-21 in Action (Squadron-Signal 131)
Sentrowski, R. and Piotrowski, C. (1992) Su-27 (Lock-on 17)
Stapfer, Hans-Heiri (1990) MiG-23/27 Flogger In Action (Squadron-Signal 101)
Stapfer, Hans-Heiri (1990) MiG-29 Fulcrum in Action (Squadron-Signal 112)
Stapfer, Hans-Heiri (1992) MiG-17 Fresco in Action (Squadron-Signal 125)
Stapfer, Hans-Heiri (1994) MiG-19 Farmer in Action (Squadron-Signal 136)
Zaloga, Steven J. Tu-22 'Blinder' and Tu-22M 'Backfire in Donald, David Ed.(2002) Tupolev Bombers
Zoltan, Buza (1993) MiG-29 (Lock On 762)
Zoltan, Buza (1994) Su-22M3 (Lock On 27)
Russia's Arms Catalogs 2001/2002
Promotional materials from NIIP, Phazotron and others

Periodicals

Various Janes publications
World Air Power Journal
International Air Power Review
Air Fleet
Aerospace Herald
Military Parade
Air Forces Monthly
Flight International
Air International
Armada International
Wings of the Native Land [in Russian]
Aviation and Time [in Russian]

Internet

http://www.niip.ru/
http://www.phazotron.com/
http://www.jedonline.com/
http://www.aviaport.ru/
http://www.maks.ru/
http://www.testpilot.ru/hard.htm
http://www.aviapanorama.ru/
http://radar.boom.ru/
http://legion.wplus.net/
http://www.airwar.ru/
http://www.airforce.ru/
http://www.brazd.ru/
http://www.flyshark.republika.pl/Samoloty_pliki/merlin.htm
http://www.avia.ru/cgi/disc.cgi
http://www.acig.org/forum
http://forum.keypublishing.co.uk/
http://forum.sukhoi.ru/
http://www.china-defense.com/forum/

8TK

8TK pod is semi-recessed under the MiG-31's nose

Semi-retractable IRST of MiG-31. Field of view of sensor is ±60° azimuth, +6/-13° elevation. Range is about 50 km against a tail-on aspect target in military power.

Aist-M

TV reconnaissance system, fitted to SU-24MR, covers a strip of ground equal to 9 times the height of the aircraft. The picture can be transmitted back to the ground station using the VPS-1 radio datalink.

Alba-F

OKB: Phazotron NIIR

Alba-F is a maritime radar designed to upgrade the Ka-27/28, giving Kh-35 compatibility. It is also intended for SAR applications. The Alba-F radar is designed for surface surveillance of both the land and sea. Whatever the sea state, the all-weather day/night system performs the following tasks:

  • Circular coverage area, with a scan radius 250 km detecting all types of maritime targets including small ones (life boats, speedboats, etc.)
  • Coastline mapping, quality image of the coastal terrain within the specified angular domain;
  • Identifying friend or foe
  • Tracking 10 targets simultaneously and determining their precise position within the all-round coverage area
  • determining the positions of meteorological phenomena; - detecting dangerous turbulent zones - conducting search and rescue operation in adverse weather.

The Alba-F coherent-pulse X-band radar is a multimode system featuring high resolution and pulse-to-pulse carrier frequency tuning. The radar boasts a 20-m accuracy in range by virtue of compound signals with large bandwidth duration products. The Angular accuracy is 20 angular minutes owing to the monopulse direction-finding technique.

The Alba-F's can detect large ships with a radar cross section (RCS) of 3,000 sq m at a distance of 250 km in sea state 5; 550 sq m RCS medium ships at a range of 50 km; and 1sq m RCS small craft at 30 km. The radar can provide coastal area mapping with 10-m resolution.

Almaz (1)

OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP

A twin-antenna design, Almaz was designed to provide radar beamriding guidance to K-6/-7 AAMs.

Almaz-3 was intended for Sukhoi T-3 interceptor

Almaz-7 an improved version for the PT-7 version of the T-3. Neither version entered service.

Almaz (2)

OKB: NPO Almaz

Mast-mounted radar for Ka-50N and Mi-28N. Current status unknown.

APK-8

OKB: MKB "Raduga"

Datalink pod for Kh-59 for MiG-27K. Integration work had not been completed when the MiG-27K's were removed from service.

APK-9

OKB: MKB "Raduga"

Datalink pod for Kh-59, Kh-59M, used on Su-24, Su-30. Also known as Tekon.

Guides missile to the target area, transmits targeting data and target acquisition. Includes data recorder.

  • length: 4m
  • diameter: 0.450 m
  • weight: 260 kg

APP-46TD

Command link pod for R-40TD, replaces one forward R-33 on MiG-31.

Arbalet / FH-01

OKB: Phazotron NIIR

Centimetric mast-mounted part of FH-01

A family of radars for helicopters. Multimode radar derived from Kopyo, with air-to-air and air-to-surface modes. An extended range version with enhanced power transmitter and maritime modes was developed for Ka-27 (see Alba-F). Works in millimetric and centimetric wave bands, with separate antennas.

Mast mount on Ka-50

Arbalet-M, Arbalet 52

More capable version of Arbalet, using Baguet series processor. Designed for the Ka-52.

  • Data processor: Ts181F
  • Signal processor: Baget-55-04.01
  • MTBF: 150 h
  • Total weight: 140kg

Components of the Arbalet radar system

Air-to-surface modes

  • Various mapping modes
  • Moving Target Selection of ground and air targets
  • Determination of priority of objects
  • Determination of terrain contours and obstacle detection during low-altitude flight
  • Missile approach warning
  • Support/cueing of EO targetting systems
  • Detection of dangerous weather formations
  • Navigation systems update/correction
  • Missile and rocket control
  • Target type classification (in conjunction with IFF)
  • Azimuth coverage: 120°
  • Mapping range: 32 km
  • Range of detection of ground target: bridge: 25 km, tank: 12 km
  • Measurement precision: azimuth: 12 min, elevation: 17 min, distance: 20 m
  • Range of detection of ground-based obstacles and terrain detection/avoidance- Electricity cables: 0.4 km, 10° sloping terrain: 1.5 km
  • Tracks 20 targets at once

Air-to-air modes

  • Search limits, azimuth: 360°, elevation ±30°
  • Detection range for Attack aircraft: 15 km, Stinger missile: 5 km
  • Tracking limits, azimuth: ±60°, elevation: ±30°
  • Tracks up to 20 targets

Argon

NATO "Bee Hind"

PRS-1 Argon is the ranging tail radar of Tu-95

PRS-3 Argon-2 is the ranging tail radar of Tu-22

Avtomat

Avtomat-2 RWR fitted to later Tu-22 models, detects fighter aircraft radars

Avtomat-3 RWR fitted to later Tu-22 models, detects ground radars

Azaliya

SPS-61, SPS-62, SPS-63 Azaliya were fitted to one variant of Tu-16E alongside SPS-6 Los

SPS-64, SPS-65, SPS-66 Azaliya were fitted to another variant of Tu-16E alongside SPS-5 Fasol

SPS-61R, SPS-63R Azaliya centimetric noise jammers were also used on the K-10SP ECM drone. In tests against Soviet warships, they neutralised radars in the appropriate bands at distances of 130-140km.

SPS-63 / SPS-66 / SPS-68 were fitted to the Mi-8PPA ECM version

Mi-8PPA jamming antennas


Mi-8PPA control panel


Berkut

OKB: Leninets

Fitted to the Il-38 ASW aircraft. Range is 280km against a large aircraft carrier-sized target.

Berkut-95 fitted to early Tu-142.

Beryoza / SPO-15 / L006

OKB: Omsk Central Design Bureau of Automation

Beryoza (this model has full 360° coverage)

Hybrid analogue/digital radar warning receiver. Sucessor to the Sirena-3M. Specifications were agreed upon in 1969, project was launched in 1970. Entered service in the late 70s.

SPO-15 is comprised of the following components:

forward azimuth antennae
control centre
cockpit indicator station
HF converters
reciever
computer
elevation angle antennae
Power supply
Long range antennae

SPO-15 cockpit display from a MiG-29

The Su-24 system has full 360° coverage while all other aircraft have a simpler system with full coverage in the front 180° and simple "left or right" detection in the rear sector.

The outer yellow lights represent the azimuth angle of the most threatening target. The light will remain lit for 8-12 seconds, so a scan rate less than this will result in a permanently lit light. The inner green dots show all other targets. The lights will indicate the approximate direction. If the emitter lies in a direction between two lights both adjacent lights will light up. The six lights across the bottom represents 6 target types which will show the radar type of the most threatening target. The inner ring of yellow indicators light up successively to show the strength of the received signal. As well as the visual indicator, a low pitched sound with similar characteristics to the detected radar signal will be given.

If the hostile radar switches to tracking (STT) the red circle will flash and a continuous high pitched audio tone will sound.

When a SAM launch is detected a continuous variable pitch sound will be given.

The Beryoza is claimed to be capable of detecting enemy airborne radars at 120% of the distance within which the enemy fighter can launch a missile.

Radars operating in TWS mode cannot be distinguished from search mode.

The priority target is simply detirmined by target type- one type is always considered more dangerous than another, regardless of signal strength or other factors.

Bands covered: 4.45-10.35GHz
Direction finding: ±10° (front)
Bandwidth capability: 20Khz
Weight: 25kg

  • SPO-15 (L006)
  • SPO-15S Scans frequencies from 4.75 to 10.7 GHz.
  • SPO-15L
  • SPO-15SL
  • SPO-15LM (L006LM)
  • SPO-15LM (L006LM/101) Downgraded version for export.
  • SPO-15LM (L006LM/108) on MiG-29SE export version.

Bizon

Mi-8MTPB with Bizon ECM system

ECM system fitted to Mi-8MTPB. Mi-8MTPB is an ECM (radar and communications jammer) and COMINT (communications intelligence) helicopter, with three jamming systems operating in D/F band range over a 30° sector and 120° in other frequencies. Has a large 32-element (8x4) array antenna.

Buket

SPS-22 / SPS-33 / SPS-44 / SPS-55 Buket

A family of airborne deception radar jammers, forming the Buket semi-automatic jamming suite fitted to the Yak28PP, Su-24MP and An-12PP. Each designation is a separate jammer covering overlapping segments of the radar band. The system, installed in the weapons bay with an external "canoe" fairing, covered a wide range of wavelengths, operated automatically and jammed several radars at once.

SPS-22N / SPS-33N / SPS-44N / SPS-55N Buket specifically modified for fitting to the Tu-16PP (Aircraft "N")

Chaika

Chaika under Su-24 nose

Chaika was a crude daylight-only fixed optical sight fitted to the original Su-24.

Delta

Command guidance system for the Kh-23 (AS-7) and Kh-25MR missiles.

Delta N internally mounted

Delta NM internally mounted, improved, probably associated with the Kh-25MR.

Delta NG external pod

Delta NG2 external pod, improved, probably associated with the Kh-25MR.

Druzhba

Advanced radar intended for Tsybin's RS supersonic reconnaissance/bomber design, which was never built. Proposed at one stage for MiG-25R.

Epaulet

OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP

Epaulet as displayed at MAKS

Micro-phased array radar installed in the 'Adjutant' system, designed to provide illumination and command guidance for the Russian-made R-27 and RVV-AE missiles for foreign aircraft or Russian aircraft with older radars. Complete system weighs 20kg. Antenna weighs just 5kg, and is also suggested for other applications such as embedding in wing roots to provide greater azimuth coverage for modern radars such as Osa.

  • Scanning limits: ±45° (azimuth and elevation)
  • Antenna weight: 5kg
  • Energy consumption, 15W
  • Time to complete a scan: 2secs

Fantasmagoria

Fantasmagoria-A / L-080

L-080 Fantasmagoria-A

Fantasmagoria-B / L-081

L-081 Fantasmagoria-B

External pod, provides emitter location/classification data for Kh-58 and Kh-31 ARMs. The two pods cover different bands. There may be a third pod designated Fantasmagoria-C.

Fasol

SPS-5
SPS-5M
SPS-5-2X

Airborne search radar noise jammer carried by the Yak-28PP, Su-24MP, Tu22P and An-12B-I and An-12B-IS.

Filin

Filin mounted under Chaika sight

Filin is installed on early Su-24 models and provides emitter detection, classification and guidance for the Kh-28 ARM. Individual machines in a unit had different equipment to cover various radar bands, which is visible in differing configurations of the antennas.

Fon (Fone)

Fon on MiG-27

An early laser rangefinder, Fone equipped the Su-22M2 and MiG-27. With no designation capability, its range was only 4km.

Gardeniya / SPS-200 series / L203

OKB: GosCNIRTI

L203 internal version from GosCNIRTI flyer

Gardeniya is a family of jammers including a noise jammer to counter radars in the 10-, 20- and 70-cm wavelengths.

SPS-201 / Gardeniya-1FU / L203 The Mig-29 was always intended to have an internal jammer, but in the event the first production version did not have one. The 9.13 "fatback" MiG-29 was the first MiG-29 to be fitted with such a device, the Gardeniya. Gardeniya can emit high frequency noise, low frequency doppler noise or flashing interference signals around the 3cm waveband. It is effective against CW, quasi-CW and PD radar and covers an area of ±60° azimuth, ±30° elevation. Unit weighs 70-73kg. Links to existing Beryoza RHAWS via L138 communication module. Also fitted to the MiG-29K and M, where it was part of an integrated EW suite including the Pastel RHAWS. Claimed to have similar performance to that of such Western systems as the ALQ-135.

Gardeniya-1FUE / L203BE is the export version.

MSP-410 Omul / Gardeniya RF

Pod mounted jammer in the Gardeniya family.

Omul on Su-25TM


"Omul" pod displayed at MAKS 2003.

Covers ±120° in azimuth, ±60° in elevation.

Geran

Geran is an second generation active jammer, which can be internally or pod mounted.

SPS-161 (L101) Geran-F installed internally on the Su-24, possibly pod mounted on Su-22M4.

SPS-162 (L102) is used on later Su-24s. Able to jam frequencies from 6 to 12GHz with 100 kW power output.

A Geran series jammer is also used on the Tu-95MS.

Grad / SRD-3

A reverse-engineered copy of the US AN/APG-30 ranging radar, Grad was fitted on the MiG-19.

Groza / OPB-15T

OBP-15T optical bombsight on Tu-22M3

 

OBP-15T optical bombsight on Tu-160 does not look identical

 

Groza-100

OKB: Phazotron NIIR

Originally designed for the Tu-128-100 interceptor in the mid sixties, and also the MiG-25MP, Groza-100 was supposed to have a search range of 200-250km, tracking range of 150-170km, and a missile launch range of 90-100km with the K-100 missile. Largely a product of wishful thinking, it led to the equally implausible Smerch-100 project.

Igla-1

Igla SLAR is housed in the container under the Il-20

Phased array SLAR fitted to Il-20- the first airborne phased array radar in the USSR.

Ikebana

ECM system fitted to Mi-8MTI

Initsiativa

NATO "Mushroom"

Initsiativa Radar fitted to the Yak-28L, Tu-95RT

Initsiativa-2 Radar fitted to the Yak-28I

Initsiativa-2K Radar fitted to Ka-25B

Initsiativa-2M Radar fitted to Mil-14PL. Range 200km.

Izumrud /RP-1

NATO "Scan Fix, Scan Odd"

OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP

Chief Designer V. V. Tikhomirov

Izumrud installation on the MiG-17PF

Izumrud, developed at NII-17 (Research Institute No. 17) by a team led by V. Tikhomirov, was adopted in 1952 for use on MiG-15 and MiG-17 fighters. It used two separate antennae for search and tracking. Tracking was automatic, as opposed to more complex, manual, competing radar designs. Using centrimetric wavelengths, its search limits were ±60° azimuth, +26° /-14° elevation with each sweep taking 1.33 seconds. Maximum range for a 16 sq m RCS target was only 12 km.

The radar displayed on the ASP-3N gunsight, with a target displayed as a short line, with length depending on size and range.

Within 2km, the radar could switch to tracking mode, which had a 7° viewing cone. Target azimuth was measured accurate to 1° and range to 150m.

RP-1 Izumrud was used on the MiG-17P. Search range was 11-12km, 2km tracking range for a Tu-4. Used with gun armament.

RP-1U Izumrud was compatible the K-5/RS-1U AAM.

RP-5 Izumrud-5 tracking range increased to 3.5-4km, more resistant to ECM. Fitted to MiG-17PFs produced from December 1955 and the MiG-19P.

RP-2U Izumrud-2 was designed for use with upgraded K-5M/RS-2US missiles (designed for use with both RP-2U and RP-9U radars) and fitted to the upgraded MiG-17PFU. Tracking range 3.5-4km. Search limits were ±60° azimuth, +26/-13° in elevation. Also fitted to MiG-19PM.

Kaira

Kaira-1 on MiG-27K (both apertures)

Kaira-1 An improved electro-optical sensor used on the MiG-27K.

Kaira comprises a TV camera in the upper aperture which has an enhanced contrast system to give low light capability, increasing the range in poor visibility conditions. Below this, in the lower aperture, is a second TV camera co-located with a second generation laser rangefinder/designator. The pilot designates the target, which is then tracked using correlation techniques. It is also possible to attack non-visible targets whose location is known in advance and programmed into the computer.

Laser range is typically 7-8km. Stabilised scanning, with limits of ±20° in azimuth, +6 to -130° in elevation. Displays on an IT-23T monochrome CRT display in the cockpit.

Unlike Klen it allowed use of both laser guided missiles and laser guided bombs.

Kaira proved a very troublesome system. It was severely overweight, which led to the removal of the scabbed-on cockpit armour, but even this didn't entirely rectify the situation. Reliability was initially poor, and it was considered too difficult to use for the average pilot. At one stage MiG-27Ks were lined up at the factory as the customer refused to accept delivery until the problems were resolved. The problems were largely ironed out, but the MiG-27K was reserved for experienced pilots who could master the complex task of flying and target location/designation simultaneously. The Su-24M was much easier in this respect as it had separate pilot and navigator.

Kaira-24M has greater coverage in elevation than Kaira-1

Kaira-24M is fitted to the Su-24M, and is very similar to Kaira-1. It was initially intended to place it in the nose, where the Su-24 Chaika system had been, but was relocated to an belly location near the centre of gravity. This decreased the effect of oscillations and bending on the accuracy of the system.

 

Kaira-24 has a field of view of +/-35° in azimuth and +6°/-160° in elevation. Maximum range of laser ranging is 12km.

Attempts to integrate Kaira on the Su-17M4 failed.

Thought to be an Su-24 Kaira display

Khibiny

ECM system tested on Su-27IB prototype, probably podded. Provides jamming against advanced SAMs such as S-300.

Khinzhal

OKB: Leninetz

Khinzhal-S millimeter-wave (8mm) imaging radar intended for use on the Su-25TM in an external pod. Range 5-7 km (fixed target, 10 sq m RCS) 25-30km (fixed target, 100 sq m RCS) 15-20km (moving target). Weight 150kg, power consumption 3.5kW.

Khinzhal-V version for helicopter mounting, suggested for Ka-50 and Mi-28.

Leninetz experienced enormous problems with radar development of the Khinzhal, which have not been solved to date. Currently thought to be abandoned.

Khishnik / B004

OKB: Leninets

Chief Designer: M. Gramagin

B004 Phased array antenna

The B004 has been under development since 1987, when Sukhoi completed the conceptual design of the Su-34. It has been designed as part of a integrated avionics subsystem for the Su-34. A suite of digital computers process and combine data inputs from sensors such as front and rear radar, thermal imaging, TV, data link, RHAWS and missile warning systems, and present a fused coherent set of information symbolically on colour LCD panels to the weapons systems operator. The system is highly automated, able to deploy countermeasures, follow terrain in low level flight, even coordinate flight paths within a formation. The suite is modular in design, fault tolerant with redundancy at hardware and software levels. The B004 radar antenna is the main radar system, capable of tracking both airborne and surface targets as well as providing navigation and mapping information. In the latter mode it performs ground mapping, automatic terrain following and terrain avoidance functions. In air-to-air mode, target detection capability is said to extend out to between 200 and 250km depending upon target size. The B004 operates in the 3cm wavelength. It features up to 15kw peak power output, and ±60° coverage in azimuth and elevation. The radar antenna alone weighs 150kg. The radar currently performs all required functions, less the SAR mode, which is to be developed later through software changes. It has a ground-mapping range of 150 km, a range of 75 km in Doppler-beam-sharpening mode, and can track small ground targets at a range of 30 km. It can also detect air targets of fighter size out to 90 km.

B004 installed on an Su-34 prototype

 

Like Kinzhal, it may have hit difficulties. Sukhoi are reportedly looking at alternative Phazotron radars. However, the PAK-FA avionics suite has been entrusted to the same companies, and uses similar technologies.

Khod

OKB: Geofizika

Imaging infrared (FLIR) pod for SU-25TM, operating in 8-14 micron band. Sukhoi tested it on the T-8TM1 prototype from 1991, and cancelled it in late 1994, reportedly unhappy with both range and stabilisation.

Khrom, Khrom-Nikel

IFF system.

SRO-2 Krom

SRO-2M Krom-2M

SRZO-2M

Klen

OKB: UOMZ

Chief Designer: M. P. Khorikov

Klen-PS on bench


Klen-PS installed on Su-25

Ken-PS fitted to the Su--22M3/M4, Su-25. In production since 1977.

Wavelength: 1.064
PRF in rangefinding mode: 1Hz
PRF in illumination mode: 10Hz
Maximum measurable range: 5km
Range error: ±5m
±12° azimuth, -30 to +6 elevation
Weight: 82kg
Power: 3.5kW

Klen-PM fitted to MiG-27M, MiG-27D.

A second generation laser rangefinder/designator that was mounted on the MiG-27M, in preference to the Kaira of the MiG-27K which was deemed too expensive for widespread deployment. Unlike Kaira it did not feature a TV channel, meaning that the target had to be acquired visually and designated by the pilot on his HUD. Maximum range of laser rangefinding is 10km.

Downwards elevation was limited to -35° , which limited armament to laser guided missiles only.

Klyukva

SPS- 4M Klyukva jammer used on some dedicated Tu-16 ECM variants

KOLS / Izdeliye 13Sh / OEPS-29

OKB: NPO Geophyizika

OEPS-29 from the MiG-29

Fitted to the MiG-29A, KOLS is a combined IRST/LR device. All aspect device. Acquires targets independently,  or with data input from the radar. Can detect a non-afterburning fighter head-on at a range of 12-18km. The collimated laser can provide ranging data from 200-6500m accurate to 3m. Scanning limits are ±30° azimuth, -15°/+30° elevation.

Chart showing KOLS operational modes from MiG-29 combat employment manual

Operates in several scanning modes. In large FOV mode scanning is ±30° azimuth, +30°/15° elevation. In small FOV mode scanning limits are ±30° azimuth and ±15° elevation. Close combat mode scans +16° to -14° by 4°. Lock-on mode scans 6° x 4°. Target tracking rate is up to 30°/sec.

KOLS is able to reject flares only if the combined signature of the flares is less than the target.

Targets are displayed on the same display as the radar. 

Komar

The Komar radar was a radar for the early MiG-29 designs, when it was being considered as an F-16A equivalent- meaning no BVR capability but some air-to-ground modes. It was shelved when it was decided that the MiG-29 would need BVR capability, though the name was later used for some versions of the similar Kopyo radar.

Kopyo FK04

OKB: Phazotron NIIR

Kopyo MiG-21 installation

Kopyo was the first private venture radar by Phazotron. Drawing on technology developed for the Zhuk radar, Phazotron produced Kopyo as a lighter, smaller radar suitable for equipping trainers and light attack aircraft as well as for upgrading older aircraft like the MiG-21. It operates in X band with 16 distinct frequencies. It uses both high PRF and medium PRF modes for optimum detection and tracking at all aspects. Kopyo weighs 120kg, occupies 250dm3, with a 500mm antenna that achieves 29dB gain. Tracking limits of the radar are ±40°. Kopyo has 2 recievers (noise factor 4dB), and transmits with a peak power of 5kw, 1kw average. It uses an MPS data processor, and a TS175 digital computer. Its MTBF is 120 hours.

Kopyo on the MiG-21-93 prototype

Kopyo has an air-to-air track-while-scan ("SNP") mode, it tracks 8 targets, and engages 2 simultaneously. The simultaneous engagement capability has been demonstrated.

It retains a single target track mode. Search range in lookup is 57km headon and 30 km in pursuit, with a tracking range of 45km, against a 3 sq m RCS target. Lookdown mode ranges are the same in headon but slightly reduced in pursuit mode (20km).

It has vertical scan, automatic HUD scan (± 14°), optical (pilot selected target on HUD) and helmet close combat modes.

Air-to-surface operating modes are comprehensive, something Phazotron only introduced in the current crop of radar designs. There are three mapping modes; low resolution (real beam) at ; medium resolution (Doppler beam sharpening, 10:1); high resolution (synthetic aperture, 100:1). Resolution in low res at 80km is 300x300m, in medum res at 60km is 30x30m, and high res at 60km is 10x5m.

Range against a large ship is 200km, a railroad bridge is 100km, a missile boat 80km and a moving group of tanks 20km.

Allows detection of moving ground targets, sea surface search, map freezing and interfaces with the Kh-31A antiship missile for target handoff.

Komar was a version of Kopyo with ±60° azimuth scan limits for the Su-22.

Kopyo-25 / N027 External pod version of Kopyo designed for Su-25TM.

Kopyo-25 prototype pod on Su-25TM

Kopyo-29 Proposed version of the Kopyo for quick and cheap upgrading of Indian MiG-29 airframes.

Kopyo-M

Kopyo-M largely identical to Kopyo, but with a TS501F modern reprogrammable data processor and a TS181F digital computer. Weight is slightly reduced, to 90kg, volume also reduced to 230dm3, and reliability increased to 200h MTBF due to more modern electronics. The improved data processing capability boosts search range to 75km and tracking range to 56km. Kopyo-M has raid assessment capability, a new wide angle close combat mode, tracks 10-12 and engages 4 in TWS mode, and can track 4 ground targets simultaneously. SAR mode resolution is improved to 3m x 3m.

Kopyo-F (was Pharaon)

Kopyo-F from Phazotron

Kopyo-F is the next-generation evolution of the Kopyo radar. Weighing just 75kg including its phased array antenna, Kopyo-F is intended for retrofitting to older aircraft, equipping light combat aircraft and may be installed in the tail of new Sukhoi Su-27 family aircraft for detection, tracking and target aquisition of pursuing targets. The radar uses a non-equidistant rather than the traditional linear radar field distribution, which allows a fivefold radar cost reduction over a conventional phased array while retaining good radiating characteristics. Kopyo-F features increased jamming resistance, and covert operation modes. A coherent TWT transmitter is used, with three basic types available, 1000w, 400w, 150w, depending on host aircraft. Using both programmable data and signal processors the available processing power of 900mflops is only currently operating at half capacity, giving plenty of room for future improvements and guaranteeing no overload of the system when tracking multiple targets.

Weight: 75kg
Volume: 165dm3
Power required: 1.8kVA AC, 0.25 kVA DC
Antenna: 0.44m diameter, ±70° coverage in azimuth and elevation. 28dB antenna gain.
X band (16 distinct frequencies)
3 receivers, 2dB noise factor
3kW peak power output, 0.3kW average
200hour MTBF

Performance

  • Lookup range 75km head-on, 30km pursuit
  • Lookdown range 70km head-on, 20km pursuit
  • 20 targets tracked, 4 engaged simultaneously.
  • Destroyer detected at 200km, missile boat 100km, railroad bridge 80km, moving group of tanks 20km
  • ground mapping modes
    • Low resolution : 80km (300m by 300m)
    • Medium resolution: 60km (30 by 30m)
    • High resolution: 60km (10 by 5m)

Pharaon-M was a further developed version which uses the latest digital technology to reduce weight to 45kg, albeit at greater financial cost.

Kopyo-F and Pharaon-M have been proposed as a tail radar for Su-27IB and Su-35.

Korshun (1)

Experimental early air intercept radar derived from Slepouchkines' Torii, fitted to the I-320 and MiG-17F. It was unreliable, difficult to use, and did not enter production.

Korshun (2)

OKB: Leninets

Korshun was designed for oversea search and detection of submarines and fitted to the Tu-142.

Korshun-K was introduced on the Tu-142MK.

Korshun-KN-N is an improved version of the Korshun radar introduced in 1985 on the Tu-142M. It had its old TsVM-264 computer replaced with a newer 263 unit, accompanied by extensive software changes.

Korshun-58

A further improved derivative of the Orel-D58, intended for the Su-15T but replaced by Taifun primarily at the insistence of the customer.

Kripton / PRS-4

NATO "Box Tail"

Tail radar installed on Tu-95KD onward, and Tu-22M.

PRS-4KM fitted to Tu-22M3

Kub-3M

ELINT system of MiG-25RBK. Near-realtime datalink.

Kurs

Kurs-N, Kurs-NM RWR and target handoff to Kh-22MP ARM for Tu-22MP, Tu-95K-22

Kvadrat-2

ELINT system fitted to the Il-20. This system is capable of emitter location, radio frequency and power measurement as well as determining pulse duration and transmission cycles.

Kvant (1) / SRD-5

NATO "High Fix"

Ranging radar only, used on MiG-21, Su-17.

SRD-5 MiG-21F (early production)

SRD-5M MiG-21F-13 (standard production), Su-17

Kvant (2)

OKB: NPO Vega-M

Kvant Long-range AEW&C radar designed for the An-71 and Yak-44 carrier-borne AWACS aircraft. Tracked 120 targets at once, with a range of 200km against a 2 sq m RCS target. Against a large aircraft, range was 350-370km. A wideband UHF coherent pulse radar, Kvant rotated at 10rpm, allowing 360° coverage and 30,000m elevation.

Kvant-M was an improved version of the Kvant, which Yakovlev intended to use on the production Yak-44. Due mainly to improvements in signal processing it had 30-50% better performance than the basic Kvant radar, including major increases in the number of simultaneous targets tracked, to 200-300.

L166

L166BIA Airbome fixed-source infrared jammer. The L166BlA comprises a 365 x 463-mm transmitter- radiator unit which weighs "no more than 20 kg" (weight and size of the "lantern" varies according to the needs of the particular platform the figures quoted relate to the Mi-8 application) and a 95 x 70 x 45-mm, 0.125kg cockpit control box. The L166BIA is quoted as offering protection against a range of threat missiles such as the Sidewinder, IR Falcon, Mica, Strela 2M, Redeye and Chaparral. Specified system life is 1,200hr with a "time between failure" value of 250 hr. Infrared source life is noted as 50 hr.

Sukhogruz on the Su-25T

 

L166SI Sukhogruz 6,000W Caesium lamp active IR jammer mounted on Su-25T. Warm-up period 5 min. Modulation frequencies: 8 channels between 700-1,700Hz at 100-150Hz separation. Weight is 28 kg (transmitter), 3.5kg (control unit).

L166V-11E Ispanka microwave IR jammer on Mi-24. Proved useless against modern MANPADS in Chechnya.

L175V / KS418

Intended to equip a jamming variant of the Su-34, the L175V is a high power stand-off jammer carried in under-wing pods. An export version for Su-24MK has been developed. KS418 designation suggests connection to MSP-418K.

Landish

Airborne EW suite (including the Los, Mimoza and Fasol radar jammers) fitted to the Su-24MP Fencer-F EW aircraft.

Liana

NATO "Flap Jack"

OKB: NPO Vega

Liana radar on the Tu-126

The Liana radar was designed in 1959 as an AEW radar to equip the Tu-126 aircraft. Initially intended to detect air targets at high altitude, on the borders of USSR airspace, and detect naval targets. It was based on an existing ground radar system- the P-30 early warning radar. It was a 2D system only, with no measurement of target altitude. Antenna rotated at a constant 10rpm in azimuth. The system became operational in 1965 but only 8 were built. In practise Liana was close to useless. It had no lookdown capability, so the switch by NATO to low level penetration made it fairly irrelevant. The naval detection mission was filled by dedicated Tu-95RTs aircraft.

It was so unreliable that technicians had to be carried on every flight to keep it working through the inevitable breakdowns. While the USSR had intended the Tu-126 to be a command and control centre, with datalinks allowing automated control of Tu-128P interceptors, this never worked and any intercepts had to be guided by voice commands over radio.

Liana could detect small, MiG-21 size fighters at 100km. Large bombers could be detected at 200-300km, while large warships could be detected out to 400km.

LIP

Airborne active radar missile approach warner fitted to platforms such as the Mi-24 Hind, Ka-29 Helix and Su-25 Frogfoot. Mi-24 installation only covered 180° , which lead to several losses, and the Ka-29 used two sensors to give 360° coverage.

Lipa (SOEP-V1A)

IR Jammer for Mi-24. Useful against older MANPADS but useless against later designs.

Los

SPS-6 Los is a jammer equipping various dedicated ECM aircraft like Tu-16E

Lyutik (SPS-150 series)

SPS-151/152/153 Airborne self protection jammer fitted to the MiG25RBV and BM, Tu-22RDM, Tu-16P (from late 70s)

Mak

OKB: Azovsky Optico-mechanical Plant(?)

Su-24 Mak-UL antenna


Tu-95MS Mak-UT MAWS

IR missile approach warning sensor family

L-082 Mak-UL fitted to Su-24M

L-083 is a Mak version

L-128 is a Mak version

Mak-UF fitted to the Su-25T is a dual band IR/UV system

Mak-UT fitted to the Tu-95MS

L-136 Mak-UFM latest generation IR missile approach warning sensor for Ka-50, MiG-24VM upgrade.

M400

M400 mockup shown at MAKS 2003


The M400 Reconnaissance System features:

  • Data acquisition, visualization, and storage system
  • Video data storage system
  • Raduga high-altitude multi-channel (multi-band) IR reconnaissance system
  • Antrakt low-altitude electro-optical reconnaissance system
  • AP-403 and AP-404 panoramic cameras
  • M402 Pika SLAR plug-in module
  • AK-108FM long-focus oblique photo camera plug-in module

The Su-30 aircraft equipped with M400 system provides for:

  • Detection of ground installations and strike confirmation in any weather conditions, day or night, at low, medium and high altitude without entering the range of enemy air defenses using radar, IR and visual sensors
  • Integrated targeting information acquisition [for attack platforms]
    Visualization and on-board logging of reconnaissance data and its real-time transmission to ground station through a high-bandwidth link

Maximum detection range without entering the range of enemy air defenses

  • Photo reconnaissance - over 70 km
  • Radar - over 100 km

Sensor resolution

  • Side-looking radar – 2 meters
  • Visual sensor – 0.3 meters
  • IR sensor – 0.3 meters
  • Long-focus photo camera – 0.4 meters

Mercuriy

OKB: MNITI

Chief Designer: K K Chizhikov

Mercury entered development in 1982 as the first airborne night-vision device in the USSR.

Mercuriy has two lenses for wide and narrow FOV

Low-light-level TV camera developed for various platforms including the Ka-50.

Mercuriy pod on SU-25TM

A pod version was developed for the Su-25T. Wide and narrow (5.5 x 7.3 ° ) field of view from two separate lenses as seen above.

Range was 10km in daylight, 3km at night against a tank size target. A bridge could be detected at 6-8km, a barge at 10-12km at night. No stabilisation.

It could be used in conjunction with the Prichal laser system in active illumination mode, which increased detection range to 4-5km for a tank.

Sukhoi were reportedly not happy with performance.

The Mercuriy was also intended to equip the Ka-50, but Kamov also found its performance lacking. It was really useful only for night flying, not for fighting.

Mercuriy fitted to Ka-50 prototype

 

Metel

External pod for Kh-28 emitter location guidance

Meteor-NM

Computer controlled ECM system fitted to Tu-95MS, linking Pastel RWR, Geran series jammer, Mak MAWS, APP-50 chaff/flare dispensers.

Miass

Airborne EW suite fitted to the Tu-22MP Backfire-C EW aircraft

Modulyatsiya SPS-4

Modulyatsiya was fitted to the Tu-16 Yolka.

Moskit

OKB: Phazotron NIIR

Moskit is a small radar, originally designed for trainer and light fighter aircraft. Weighing just 70kg, Moskit-1 has a search range of 45km, tracking range of 30km, detects simultaneously up to 12 targets, selects the most dangerous 4 of them, tracks and engages them. It has a +30° detection / track angle in azimuth and two or four bars in elevation. It works in the X band.

Air to air modes available include look-up, look-down, single target track, and air combat. Air to ground modes include fixed and moving land and sea target tracking and designation.

Moskit-23 for MiG-23 upgrades

Moskit-23 is an updated Moskit radar. The Moskit-23 radar is equipped with a TS-600 signal/data processor. Improved hardware and software allows increase in the search range of the radar for a fighter to 90km, tracking range to 60km. Moskit-23 provides ground mapping modes, and launching of the Kh-31A active radar missiles against naval targets from a distance of up to 100 kilometres. Guided bombs can also be used. Moskit-23 can detect and track hovering helicopters. It is designed for a proposed MiG-23 upgrade. It detects simultaneously 10 to 12 targets, selects the most dangerous 4 of them, tracks and engages them. Weight is 110kg.

MSP

OKB: TsNIRTI

A lightweight, high performance jammer for the Su-25TM using DRFM (Digital RF Memory) and DSP technology. Tested from 1998 on the T-8TM-4 prototype. Features a modular open architecture

It covers the G-J-band frequency range. Modes available include noise, range gate pulloff, velocity gate pulloff, combined range/velocity gate pulloff, angle, terrain bounce, programmed structure

The pod's weight was supposed to be 80kg, with 120° azimuth, 60° elevation coverage.

Probably the same as MSP-418K, or closely related.

MSP-418K

OKB: TsNIRTI

MSP-418K on MiG-29SMT demonstrator at MAKS 2003

A lightweight, high performance jammer for the MiG-29 using DRFM (Digital RF Memory) technology. Possibly related to the older MSP-410 pod. It covers the G-J-band (4-18 GHz?) range. The pod's weight is 150kg, dimensions are 230 x 225 x 3,800mm. 120° azimuth, 60° elevation coverage.

N001 / Myech / RPLK-27

NATO "Slot Back"

OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP

Chief designer: V K Grishin

N001 looks very similar to the MiG-29's N019 radar

The N001 radar for the Su-27 was designed by Viktor Grishin. Pushing the state of the art for the USSR, the original design, known as Myech, was supposed to draw heavily on technologies developed for the experimental Soyuz radar program led by NPO Istok. It was intended to have a great deal of commonality with the MiG-29's N019 Rubin radar.

N001 internals from factory website

Development was difficult. Originally intended to significantly outperform the AN/APG-63 of the F-15, with a 200km detection range, in reality this goal proved impossible for NIIP to achieve. It was intended to use an all new design antenna, featuring electronic scanning in elevation and mechanical scanning in azimuth. This would give excellent multitarget engagement capability, and use of the MiG-31's R-33 was envisaged. This design proved overly ambitious, and was simply unachievable for a mass production radar given the state of the Soviet electronics industry in the early eighties. In May 1982, it was decided that the NIIP designed digital computer and antenna were simply not up to scratch, nor likely to become so in the near future.

Phazotron's N019 had already reverted back to an improved version of the Sapfir-23ML's twist-cassegrain antenna to replace its problematic flat-plate antenna. It was decided therefore to use major components from the N019 radar, including a scaled-up copy of its twist-cassegrain antenna and the TS100 processor. By March 1983, the redesign was complete, though the resulting radar was nowhere near as good was intended. Instead of 200km, detection range barely reached 140km even against a large bomber.

Stills from NIIP video show the twist-cassegrain antenna

In 1985 NIIP were ordered to improve its performance. Attention and work had switched to the new N011 radar to equip the Su-27M, and problems with N001 persisted. According to NIIP, initial units had a MTBF of only 5 hours. Though the Su-27 entered service in 1986, its radar was not finally accepted into service until 1991. Eventually MTBF was brought up to 200 hours.

N001 has a 1.075m antenna diameter twist-cassegrain antenna. A pulse-doppler design operating in the 3-cm band utilising medium and high PRFs for optimum lookdown capability, the N001 has a search range of 80-100km against a 3 sq m RCS target in a headon engagement, 140km against a large bomber. It can track a 3 sq m target at 65km. In a pursuit engagement, search range for a 3 sq m target falls to just 40km. Azimuth limits are ±60° . It can also track ECM sources, and feed target data to the Su-27's IRST system.

The average power transmitted is 1kW (same as N019).

MTBF is 100 hours.

A radar datalink is used for updating inertially guided missiles such as the R-27.

The Su-27K used an updated SUV-33 control system, the N001 radar was largely unchanged but with sea optimised lookdown capability and support for the carrier-based GCI system.

A modernised N001 radar developed for retrofitting to in-service Su-27 (analogous to the Phazotron N019M Topaz) can track and engage 2 targets at once using the R-77 missile.

N001VE is fitted to Chinese Su-30MKK. Uses Baguet series BCVM-486-6 processor for additional capabilities. Basically the same as NIIP Stage 1 package below.

NIIP N001 modernisation package

Stage 1: Provision of ground mapping modes. Existing radar is modified with a bypass channel that allows incoming radar data to be switched to a new all-digital processing system. When a new mode is selected, radar data is sent to the new subsystems, but if an old mode is selected the data is processed as before by the existing radar hardware. Thus all old modes remain unchanged. New air to ground modes added are very similar to those of the Zhuk radar. Only 1 additional air-to-air mode, which gives RVV-AE compatibility.

Stage 2: NIIP propose a new lightweight, optically-fed Pero phased array antenna as a drop-in replacement for the existing cassegrain antenna. This will substantially improve air-to-air performance, and increase air-to-ground resolution. New modes will be added at the same time for target identification, velocity search, and to detect hovering helicopters. Suggested that range might reach 300km against a large target.

Upgrade to Stage 2 is expected to cost 35% of the cost of a new radar.

N003

see Sapfir-23ML

N005

See Sapfir-25

N006

See Sapfir-23ML

N007

See Zaslon

N008

See Sapfir-23MLA-2

N010

See Zhuk

N011 / RLSU

OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP

Chief Designer: Tamerlan Bekirbayev

N011 mounted on Su-27M prototype

This radar design was initiated in the early/mid 80s for the Su-27M program by Tamerlan Bekirbayev, drawing on experience gained with the original, unachievable Myech design and the experimental Soyuz program by NPO Istok.

It was not without problems, and fell victim to a decision that all future radars should be phased-array, despite the greater cost. NIIP drew on technology from their cancelled N014 radar intended for the MFI to improve the N011 with a passive phased array antenna and better signal processing.

N011 Mechanically scanned 960mm planar array antenna, ± 85° coverage. Said to be heavier than the N001. Uses a multimode wideband TWT transmitter with peak power output of 8 kW, and average of 2 kW. It features a low noise UHF input amplifier, and full digital signal processing using reprogrammable digital computers. Tough requirements, to track 20 targets and engage 8 simultaneously over a wide area, proved impossible to achieve with a mechanically scanned antenna. Initial versions proved able to track 13 aerial targets and engage four, which with further development could be extended to 15 and 6 respectively. It has five air-to-ground and four maritime modes. The maximum search range for large air targets such as airborne early warning and control aircraft is 400km, 140km against a head-on fighter-class target, 65km tail-on.

In an air-to-ground mode, it can acquire surface targets at ranges of up to 200km, and undertake ground mapping, terrain- following and terrain-avoidance missions.

Further development of the N011 is unlikely.

N011M Bars / RLSU-30MK

N011M antenna installed on Su-30MK

N011M Bars is an upgraded phased array antenna version of the N011.

Under development since the early 1990s, two prototype N011M radars were produced, of which one was flight tested in Su-27M prototype "712". It is now in production, and is currently fitted to the Su-30MKI.

Antenna diameter is 1m, antenna gain 36dB, the main sidelobe level is -25dB, average sidelobe level is -48dB, beamwidth is 2.4° with 12 distinct beam shapes. The antenna weighs 110kg. It is both mechanically and electronically scanned to give increased field of view over a fixed phased array antenna and also to allow the radar to be tilted away when not in use, decreasing RCS. Two variants were initially proposed, the first was both electronically and mechanically scanned in azimuth (±30° mechanically plus ±60° electronically, for a total coverage of ±90°) and electronically scanned in elevation (±60°). The second was mechanically and electronically scanned in both azimuth and elevation (±90° in both axes).

The N011M fitted to the Su-30MKI was the first type, but in testing the passive phased array proved unable to be electronically steered greater than 40° without unacceptable degredation of performance. Therefore scanning limits are reduced to ±70° (±30° mechanically, ±40° electronically) in azimuth and ±40° in elevation.

Peak power output is 4-5kW, average power output is 1.2kW.

Ts200 PSP (Programmable Signal Processor)
Data entry speed: 28 MHz
Peak performance on fourier transforms of "butterfly" type: 75 Million operations per second.

Radar control processor
Number of processors: 3
Processor RAM (or possibly Flash memory): 16 Mb
Processor ROM: 16 Mb

Weight of complete radar system is 650kg.

Initially India were supposed to construct both programmable signal processors (PSP) and data processors (RC) under project "Vetrivale" to replace the original Russian components. Unfortunately, LRDE expressed their inability to develop the system within the envisaged time frame, especially in view of the non-finalisation of the required technical specification by NIIP. The project therefore reverted to the Ts200 PSP originally designed for the Su-27M's N011. The initial radar data processor delivered was also Russian.

The contract for the N011M radar has three stages. The initial MK1 software was tested in 2002 and supplied with the first Su-30MKI deliveries. NIIP were finalising the 2nd stage (MK2), still using the Russian data processor, in October 2003, while testing on the final (MK3) revision had also begun. MK3 incorporates the Indian-designed Vetrivale RC (radar computer) based in the i960 architecture. Currently in 2004 MK3 is still in testing. While MK2 implements most of the modes above, full capability will only be met with the 3rd stage radar.

The construction, the operating system and the applied ”Bars” radar control system software support fully are compatible with Western standards, which allows their upgrade without changing the logic of the radar control system’s operation.

The computer technology is executed in Western military standard form factor (Compact PCI).

A Bars' test radar is said to have detected Su-27 fighters at a range of over 330 km, tracked several targets while volume scanning, and correctly identified aerial targets.

Air to air modes

  • Velocity Search
  • Range While Search
    • Detection range in headon engagements: 120-140km
    • Detection range in tailchase engagements: 60km
  • Track While Scan of 15 targets
  • Precision Tracking up to 4 targets for engaging targets while continuing volume search.
    • Scanning zone while tracking is given as 5,500 square degrees in one document, while another says targets can be tracked anywhere in the 80° tracking zone of the radar while continuing to scan. A ±40° azimuth by ±40° elevation scan area like this suggests would be 6,400 square degrees.
  • Target Illumination; generation of radio update commands for BVR AAMs.
  • Track ECM source
  • Raid Assessment while scan
  • Target Identification while scan
    • On switching on of this mode, the “Bars” radar control system determines the type of aerial target detected through the parameters of the signal reflected from the target. Identified generic target types include “large target,” “medium target,” “small target,” “group target,” transport airplane, helicopter, and jet airplane. Upon introduction into the database of the appropriate spectral characteristics, this mode can identify exact aircraft types. The technique is thought to be based on on identifying engine type from the signal modulation induced by rotating engine compressors. 5 targets can be identified in 1 second, while the radar continues to volume scan and track other targets.
  • Several close combat modes for search, lock-on and tracking of a single aerial target in close-in maneuvering combat.
    • Limits:
      Azimuth: ±3° or ±10°
      Elevation: -15/+40° or ±7.5°

Air-to-ground modes

  • Real beam mapping
  • DBS mapping
  • SAR mapping
  • Moving ground target selection
  • Measuring of ground target coordinates and tracking up to 2 ground targets
    • Range, a railroad bridge: 80-120km
    • Range, group of tanks: 40-50km
    • Best resolution in SAR mode: 10m

Anti shipping modes

  • Long range detection of huge sea targets
  • Sea surface scan and detection of sea targets
    • Range against a destroyer sized target: 120-150km
  • Moving sea target selection
  • Measuring of coordinates, tracking up to 2 sea targets, moving or stationary
  • Naval target ID

Mixed modes

  • Search air-to-air targets while tracking ground or sea targets
  • Track one ground target while simultaneously firing at an aerial target in long-range combat

N012

OKB: NIIR Rassvet

Tail radar used on Su-35/37 operating at decimetric wavelengths which is installed in the long tail boom between the tail pipes. This radar forms part of the aircraft's defensive aids sub-systems suite (DASS) and warns the crew of approaching threats in the rear hemisphere as well as controlling active and passive jamming responses to such threats. Claimed to have a range of 50km for a 3 sq m RCS fighter, or 100km for a large aircraft. Scans 60° in azimuth and elevation.

N014

OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP

Associated with the Mikoyan 1-42/1-44 project, the passive phased array N014 radar project from NIIP was abandoned. Supposed to track 40 targets. Range up to 420km. Used in conjunction with the N012 tail radar. The antenna was scanned electronically and mechanically to increase angular coverage.

Some elements or techniques from it were applied to the N011M.

NIIP have experimented with bistatic radar techniques, which were probably intended for N014.

N019 / Rubin / RPLK-29 / S-29 / Sapfir-29

NATO: "Slot Back"

OKB: Phazotron NIIR

N019 radar

Based on the work undertaken by NPO Istok on the experimental Soyuz radar program, Phazotron NIIR were tasked in the mid 70s with producing a modern radar for the MiG-29. Originally intended to have a planar array antenna and digital signal processing, and a range of at least 100km against a fighter target, it soon became clear that this would not be achievable, at least not in a radar that would fit in the MiG-29's nose. Phazotron NIIR reverted to a version of the twist cassegrain antenna used successfully on the Sapfir-23ML, and analogue signal processor technologies similar to their earlier designs, with a NII Argon- designed Ts100 digital computer.

N019 block diagram


The N019 radar weighs around 385kg in total. It is a pulse-doppler radar operating in X band around 3cm wavelength. It uses three basic operating regimes. High PRF radar mode for optimal detection of closing targets, medium PRF mode for optimal detection of receding targets, and an interleaved high/medium PRF mode for all aspect detection. It uses a guard channel for sidelobe suppression. SARH Illumination and main channels use different frequencies within the X band, and are multiplexed in time. Individual aircraft can be preset on the ground to different frequencies to avoid mutual interference during group operations.

N019 Master oscillator

Scanning cycle times are 2.5-5 seconds depending on mode.

Beam width is 3.5º, which determines the minimum separation of two targets in azimuth.

The radar beam is stabilised up to 120º in roll and +40º/-30º in pitch.

N019 Transmitter

N019 is a hybrid analogue/digital design, with an NII Argon Ts100 digital processing unit. The Ts100 processor can achieve 170,000 operations per second, has 8K RAM and 136k ROM, and is built using medium scale integration ICs.

N019 Ts100 processor

It is based on the proprietary POISK architecture developed at NII Argon, which allows adapting of the instruction set to control system functions, by expanding the basic instruction set with microcodes inherent in specific tasks. Compared to machines using the same elements but a generic instruction set (e.g. the ES EVM architecture Argon-15A of the MiG-31) processing capability was enhanced by 1.5 to 2.5 times and the code 3 to 5 times more compact, making Ts100 much cheaper to produce. The Ts100 computer weighs 32 kg.

N019 Microwave receiver

Radar Modes (Description from N-019EB export variant manual)

Radar scan limits in azimuth: ±65º
Radar scan limits in elevation: +56º, -36º

Mode "V" (Vstryehchya) : Encounter

Encounter mode is the main search mode used in interception, as it gives the longest detection ranges and the least false returns.

It uses a High PRF mode which can detect closing targets only in the velocity range of 230 - 2500km/h at altitudes from 30m to 23,000m. The display is calibrated to a maximum range of 150km.

Target can be up to 10,000m above or 6,000m below the host aircraft's own altitude.

A typical 3 sq m RCS fighter target can be detected at 50-70 km and tracked at 40-60 km. If the target is flying below 3,000m reduces the detection range to 40-70 km and tracking range to 30-60km.

Two basic scan patterns are used.



When the system is under direct GCI control via datalink, a 6 bar elevation raster scan is used. This scan covers a sector of 40° in azimuth at ranges up to 30km, 30° at ranges of 30-55 km, and 20° above 55km within the scan limits given above. The distance to target and other useful information is supplied by GCI command, and the direction of the scan is automatically cued by CGI command towards the desired target.



When the system is not under direct GCI control via datalink, a 4 bar raster scan mode is used to acquire a target manually. This mode scans a constant 50° in azimuth, with the pilot controlling the direction of the scan. It is expected that the rough direction to the target will be given by ground control via voice commands.

There is no scan pattern for full azimuth range scanning. The 130º scan area is divided into 3 sectors. Left sector is -65º to -15º, centre sector covers -25º to +25º, right sector from +15º to +65º, giving overlapping coverage of the full 130º scan limits. Individual targets can be resolved providing they are separated in azimuth and 5-6km in range. Range measuring error of a single target can be as high as 8km, which should be recalled when comparing measured target range with that supplied by GCI controller.

Minimum measurable range in this mode is 5km.

Lockon and transition to tracking mode takes 2 to 7 seconds in Encounter mode.

Note that in Encounter mode, a target that changes direction to a tail-on engagement may be be lost even when in tracking mode, if it is no longer closing.

Mode "D" (Dogon): Pursuit



A medium PRF mode usable for both headon and tailchase engagements. In practise it is used only when necessary, as it is prone to displaying false targets from ground clutter especially at low altitudes. Marsh land, marshy forests and flood plains give greatest clutter problems. When multiple false returns are present, the pilot should compare visible targets with the calculated target range supplied by datalink from GCI controller to determine the correct target.

Display is calibrated to a maximum range of 50km.

Detects targets from 30 m to 23,000 m altitude receding at speeds of 210 - 2200 km/h.

Target can be up to 10,000m above or 6,000m below.

Range against a typical 3 sq m RCS fighter target is 25-35km search and 20-35km tracking when host aircraft is flying above 3000m. When flying from 1000m to 3000m altitude, range is reduced to 20-35km search and 18-35km track. When flying at 500-1000m achievable range is just 15-30km search and 13-25km tracking.

When target range is below 20km, scan coverage is 40º in azimuth, 16.5º in elevation.



If target range is above 20km, scan coverage is 30º in azimuth, 13.5º in elevation.



Individual targets can be resolved providing they are separated 3-4km in range in Pursuit mode.

Errors in range measurement can be as high as 8km, but there is no minimum range.

Lockon and transition to tracking mode takes 1-4 seconds in Pursuit mode.

When "Cooperation" mode is selected, the radar is automatically switched to an equivalent mode to pursuit, scanning with the IRST.

Mode "SP" (???) Free Search

Information on this mode is not available. It is believed to be a high PRF mode similar to Encounter mode, only available on Soviet standard machines, with better ECCM capabilities.

Mode "AVT" (Aootomaht) Automatic

Automatic mode uses a mixture of High and Medium PRF to give optimal all aspect detection. Each line of the scan is alternated between high and medium PRF, unless range is under 10km when only medium PRF is used.

It generates a display calibrated to a maximum range of 100km. Targets can be theoretically detected at similar ranges to Encounter and Pursuit modes according to targets direction of movement..

In Automatic mode tracking of a target should continue regardless of target direction provided rate of closure/opening is sufficiently high.

It is considered by pilots to be quite problematic, overloading the data computer and generating numerous false returns. It is primarily intended for use when lacking information from the ground station concerning the target's direction.

Track-while-flyby submode is not available in AVT mode. AVT mode provides the same functionality automatically.

"SNP" (Soprovazhdenie Na Prokhode) Track-While-Flyby mode

Track-While-Flyby submode can be set in Encounter or Pursuit modes only.

Track-while-flyby mode allows the simultaneous tracking of up to 10 targets, measuring their angular position, range and rate of closure. The target with the highest rate of closure/range ratio is designated the most dangerous, and automatically marked on the display. The pilot can override the automatic selection if he decides on another target. After switching to track-while-flyby mode it is not clear if the radar continues volume scanning, and it may be that only the (up to 10) tracked targets are followed. Track-while-flyby mode will automatically follow the target marked most dangerous (automatically or by pilot override) in elevation, within the elevation limits of the radar, without pilot intervention.

The TSVM computer calculates missile launch parameters for the most dangerous target. As the range to target approaches the calculated maximum missile launch range, the radar will stop scanning for targets and transition to an 8º by 40º box pattern scan in the direction of the designated target. If the target is located, the radar will transition to single target tracking mode, and all other contacts are discarded. If no target is found within 3 cycles, the radar returns to scanning mode.

Track-while-flyby mode is intended to allow missile launch at maximum range with minimal warning to the target, by switching to true single target tracking mode as late as possible.

Mode "BL BOY" (Bleezhniy Boy) Close Combat



Close Combat mode overrides all other modes. It uses a + 37º/ -13º fixed directly ahead vertical scan that is 6º wide (2 scan lines) with a 2.5 sec scan cycle and provides semiautomatic target acquisition. The closest target present in the scan area will be locked when pressing the lockon button without having to designate it.

Close Combat mode can lockon from 450 m to 10km in range, and track a locked on target down to 250m.

It is not slewable, but fixed straight ahead only. Targets can be tracked in a closure rate range from +300 meters/second to -500 meters/second including co-speed targets.

Lockon and transition to tracking mode takes 1-2 seconds in Close Combat mode.

N019 is the USSR standard model.

N019EA is the version supplied to Warsaw Pact countries. Lacks "SP" mode.

N019EB is an export variant for general export. More downgraded. Less capable TS100.02.06 digital processor. Also lacks "SP" mode.

N019M is an updated version, developed as a response to the compromise of the N-019 radar by a US spy. Tested from 1986, it entered limited production in 1991. Slightly lighter than the N-019 at 350kg. N019 has increased ECM resistance, new software, and a more advanced built-in monitoring system. A new Ts101M computer relieves the processor overload problems of the N019, more than doubling capacity to 400,000 operations per second whilst weighing less, just 19kg, and with doubled MTBF of 1000h compared to the 500h of the Ts100. N019M allows two targets to be engaged by active radar homing missiles simultaneously. Range increased slightly to 80km. Originally intended to be fitted to the existing MiG-29 fleet as an upgrade, about 22 aircraft with N019M are thought to have entered service with the VVS.

N019ME Topaz Export version of Topaz, slightly downgraded. All Indian MiG-29s have been upgraded to this standard.

N019MP is a further modified radar proposed by Phazotron for the MiG-29SMT program. It used a Baguet series processor. The maximum range remained the about the same, but the radar could detect 20 targets simultaneously, track four, and engage two. The radar had also basic air-to-ground functions, like ground mapping mode, acquisition and engagement of sea targets with radar homing missiles, and ground targets with unguided weaponry under any weather conditions, day and night. The NO19MP could generate maps of 15x15, 24x24, 50x50 or 77x77km with a resolution of 15m. Radar imagery could be transmitted via datalink to GCI centres or A-50 AWACS aircraft. Targets visible on the radar map could be designated by the pilot(using a joystick) or ground controller, and used to cue TV-guided missile seekers, whose higher resolution imagery can then be displayed or transmitted to the GCI or A-50 controller as well. Performance against slow flying helicopters was improved as well as resistance to jamming. Uses Doppler beam sharpening techniques. Now superceded by N019M1.

N019M1 This latest radar upgrade proposal from Phazotron retains the antenna and transmitter block assemblies but replaces pretty much all the rest of the radar. It introduces new fully programmable digital processing, giving 30-50% greater range in air-to-air search and track. Improved track-while-scan mode, with the ability to continue volume search for new targets while tracking 10. 4 targets can engaged at once with R-77 missiles. 4 different close combat modes are available. Has raid assessment mode, and target class recognition. Air to surface modes include Real beam, DBS, SAR (5x5m), and moving target detection. Can handoff target data to the Kh-31A/Kh-35A anti-shipping missiles. Allows target handoff to TV guided weapons. Collision alarm system. It is being touted as a low cost upgrade for existing MiG-29 operators.

Phazotron-Ukraine are offering a UM522 low noise reciever to replace the NO19-09 UHF receiver. This low cost drop-in replacement part increases range 10-20%.

Obzor

NATO "Clam Pipe"

OKB: Leninets

Obzor radar in the nose of a Tu-95MS

Obzor-MS is a long range pulse-doppler air-to-surface radar, fitted to the Tu-95MS. It lacks a terrain following mode, due to the Tu-95's inability to fly low-level missions. Uses DBS (Doppler Beam Sharpening) for improved resolution mapping.

Obzor-K is an updated version of Obzor designed for the Tu-160 (Aircraft K). Linked to Sopka TFR. Range is around 300km.

A modernised Obzor radar is being developed for upgrading remaining Tu-160 and some Tu-95MS with LPI (Low Probability of Interception) and SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) modes.

Oko / E-801

OKB: NPO Vega

Oko radar deployed below Ka-31

This radar equips the Ka-31 AEW carrierborne helicopter. It tracks 20 targets at at 100-150km, 250km against a large target. Secondary processing is done on board ship. Antenna is 6m x 1.0m and weighs 200kg.

Okhotnik

Modern FLIR/TV/Laser system, gyro-stabilised and with automatic target tracking, under development at Ryazan.

OLS /OLS-30 / Izdeliye 52Sh

UOMZ OLS

Designed by UOMZ for the Su-35. Integrates ground target range finding and illumination capabilities, and possibly a TV channel like that featured on the OLS-M for MiG-29M. Field of view is -15 to + 60 elevation, ± 60 azimuth.

4 different FOVs used, 60° x 10° (wide FOV) 20° x 5° (narrow FOV), 3° x 75° (close combat vertical scan) 3° x 3° (lock on).

The range of working temperatures is -50 to +60°C. Dimensions are 841 x 916 x 575mm, weight of the whole assembly is 200kg. Fitted to the Su-30MKK for China and Indian Su-30MKI.

Detection range may be as high as 90km.

OLS-27 / Izdeliye 36Sh

NPO Geofizika

OLS-27

A combined IRST/LR device for the Su-27, similar to the MiG-29's KOLS but more sophisticated, using a cooled, broader waveband, sensor. Tracking rate is over 25deg/sec. 50km range in pursuit engagement, 15km head-on. The laser rangefinder operates between 300-3000m for air targets, 300-5000m for ground targets.

Search limits are ±60deg azimuth, +60/-15° in elevation. Three different FOVs are used, 60° by 10°, 20° by 5°, and  3° by 3°.  Detection range is up to 50km, whilst the laser ranger is effective from 300-3000m. Azimuth tracking is accurate to 5 secs, whilst range data is accurate to 3-10m. Targets are displayed on the same CRT display as the radar. Weighs 174kg.

OLS-27K for Su-33 featured new algorithms and better processor. It allegedly tracked targets in pursuit mode by their IR signature at 90 km during tests.


OLS-M

NPO Geophyizika

Designed for the MiG-29M/K. A combined IRST/LR/TV device. Features a more sensitive cooled IR seeker, a more powerful laser ranger and a TV channel.  Can detect a fighter at 35km using the IR channel, or 10km using the TV channel. Positive visual IDs can be obtained at 6km. The laser rangefinder is effective out to 8km. Laser has ground target designation/rangefinding capabilities.

OPB-15T

See Groza

OPB-116

Optical bombsight fitted to Yak-28I

Oryol / RP-11

NATO "Skip Spin"

OKB: Phazotron NIIR

Chief designer: G M Kunyavsky

Oryol-D58 mounted on an Su-15

Basic air intercept radar, using a parabolic antenna scanning ±30° in azimuth. Designed by a ex-NIIP team at Phazotron led by G M Kunyavsky, and based on the team's earlier Sokol design for the Yak-27K but shrunk somewhat in size. Improved performance compared to OKB-1's TsD-30.

Oryol-D58 has an cassegrain antenna

RP-11 Oryol development started in 1957 for Su-11, also fitted to Yak-28P. Range 25-30km head-on against a fighter target
Detection range 10-15km tail-on against a fighter target
Detection range 30-35km head-on against a Tu-16 target
Detection range 15-18km tail-on against a Tu-16 target

Oryol-D58 display from an Su-15

RP-15 Oryol-D58 improved version developed for the Su-15.

RP-15M Oryol-D58M updated version fitted to later production Su-15 models.

Orion

NATO: "Drop Kick"

OKB: Leninets

Chief Designer: Yevgeny Zazorinym

Orion (top) and Relyief TFR (bottom)

Orion was originally designed for the Su-7. Operating at 8mm wavelength(?), Orion was unfortunately far too large (antenna is 1.4m across) for the Su-7 nosecone, so it was hoped to carry it in an external pod. The radar was too heavy, however, and the plans were abandoned. The radar design eventually found its home on the much larger Su-24. Using a conventional parabolic antenna, it has a maximum range of 150 km, and could detect and track large targets with significant radar contrast with the ground. It could be used for blind bombing only against big area targets, such as railway stations, large command posts, etc. A slightly improved version, Orion-A, was fitted to the Su-24M.

Orion and Relyief during maintenance

Osa

OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP

Osa in MiG-21 configuration

This is an NIIP designed radar with a small phased array, designed to compete with Kopyo and Moskit. Intended for use on the MiG-29UBT aircraft. The radar can track eight targets, and engage four at the same time within the entire scanning area of ±60deg in azimuth and elevation. Peak power output is 3.5 kW, while average power output is 700 W. The radar works in the X band. Allows use of medium-range air-to-air missiles such as R-27 and R-77. Search range is 85km versus 5 sq m target. TWS range is 65km. Weight is under 120kg, cubic capacity no more than 150dm3.

Osminog

NATO "Splash Drop"

Antenna for the Osminog radar

Ka-27 radar, max range of 180km against a large ship.

Otklik / L-140

Laser warning sensor, suggested for Mi-24 upgrades, Mi-28, Ka-50 and Su-25SM.

Pallad

Primitive internal jammer fitted to Su-27, can only jam rearwards when radar is in operation to avoid interference with the radar. Ineffective.

Panda

The final stage of N001 modernisation has been called "Panda". It includes the Pero phased array antenna.

Pantera

Contemporary design to the Uragan (which led to the Smerch radar), Pantera was suggested for the Sukhoi P-1 and advanced Su-9 versions. Worked with K-7 AAMs.

Parol

D-band IFF system, designed after the Khrom-Nikel system was compromised. Not exported outside the USSR until after its breakup.

SRO-3, SRZ-15

SRZO-2, SRO/SRZ-1P-62D Parol

Parol 2D

Parol-2M - SRO-2M

Pastel / SPO-32 / L150

OKB: Avtomatika

Chief Designers: V A Malykhin and V V Galaktionov

Basic model of Pastel digital RWR

Pastel entered development in 1982, possibly as a reaction to poor performance of Soviet fighters in the Middle East. By 1983 the initial design was produced. It was intended for the Mi-28, MiG-29K/M, Su-27M and others.

Pastel is a family of new generation digital RWRs.

Su-25TM installation

Scans from 1.2-18GHz threat frequencies.

Accuracy is 3-5° with pinpoint location antenna, 10° in rough location antenna. 128 reprogrammable radar types. Detection range minimum of 120% of the radar's range. 3 modes- operational target, programmed target, most dangerous target.

Detects and finds direction for pulse, pulse-doppler and CW mode radars in search, track and illumination modes. Classifies multiple threats by danger, with full display of all information about most threatening radar presented to crew. Controls EW systems, has the ability to control and assign targets to 6 anti-radiation missiles such as the Kh-31. Aural warnings for high threat situations.

Mi-28 installation- note Western-style CRT display

Pastel may be made available for upgrade packages or built into new export models of the Mig-29 and Su-27 families.

 

Pelena

Radio jammer fitted to ECM helicopters. Tom Cooper believes some Iraqi Tu-22s were equipped with it as well.

Pero

OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP

Pero phased array

The system comprises an optically fed X band phased array of reflective type (main radar) and an L band phased array of passing type (IFF interrogators). Pero antennas are designed both for updating the radars of existing aircraft fleet and for its application in newly-developed systems.

Pero installation on an Su-27

Pero for Su-27
Antenna diameter, 1050mm
Gain in X-band, 34.0 dB
Mean phase level in X band, -38 dB
Weight, 82kg

Pero for MiG-29
Antenna diameter, 750mm
Scanning limits ±55° Gain in X-band, 31.5 dB
Mean phase level in X band, -35 dB
Weight 40kg

Pero can be integrated with the existing N001 or N019 radar to increases its performance. The radar range of N001 increases to 190 km and the radar would be capable of tracking twelve targets and engaging four of them with R-77 missiles.

As of 2001 two experimental Pero units had been assembled, and one delivered to China to testing.

Pharaon

See Kopyo

Pika

SLAR proposed to equip the dedicated Su-27R variant- now used in M400 external recce pod.

Platan

Jammer for Mi-28N.

Prichal

OKB: UOMZ

Chief Designer: I P Belezertsev

Laser rangefinder/designator of the Su-25T Shkval system. Production launched in 1988.

Progress

Progress pod on the MiG-27K

Pod to support the Kh-31, for MiG-27K. Very troublesome, and still under development when the breakup of the Soviet Union ended the program.

Prozhektor-1

Pod mounted laser designator used in Kh-25 trials on Su-17M from 1973. Thought to have been used until deployment of internal laser designators on Su-17 series and possibly the MiG-27 too.

PSB-N

Radar of Il-28

Ram-R

TV tracking system for Kh-23 missile?

Relyef

Orion (top) and Relyef TFR (bottom)

This is a terrain-following radar fitted to the Su-24M. It was tested on a specially modified Su-15.

What appear to be TFR steering cues on an Su-24 HUD?

 

Rezeda

Reseda Jammer installed in the Tu-95K-22

Rezeda-A / SPS-100A Jammer of the Tu-22

 

Ritsa

Ritsa antenna array on a Tu-16 nose

Passive radar target finding system fitted to Tu-16K-11, used with KSR-11 ARM.

Rubin (PN)

NATO "Short Horn", "Down Beat"

OKB: Leninets

Rubin-1 radar system was developed in 1962 for the Tu-16K-11-16. Pulse design.

Rubin-1K was fitted to the Tu-16KSR-2. It allowed frequencies to be tuned by 3% to prevent interference during group operations. Range was about 200-240km.

Rubin-1KV was fitted to the Tu-95M-5 and Tu-16K-26

Rubin-1M was retrofitted in a large belly radome, replacing the nose-mounted Rubin-1K, on the Tu-16KSR-2-5 and Tu-16KSR-2-11, giving greater detection range to allow full use of the KSR-5/11 (AS-6 Kingfish) missile's range. Maximum range could be as great as 450km.

RBP-4 Rubin was the radar of the Tu-95M.

PN Rubin was the radar of the Tu-22 medium range bomber.

PNA-B Rubin was installed on the Tu-95K-22 and Tu-22M.

PNA-D The Tu-22M-3 radar was further improved with doppler beam sharpening mapping modes.

Ryabina

LLTV/laser designator pod, can be fitted to MiG-27M, tested on MiG-29 (9.14)

Sablya-E / Izdeliye 122

OKB: NPO Vega

SLAR fitted to MiG-25RBS. Troublesome in service. Could not operate below 17,000m, with post mission analysis required.

Samotsvet

IR sight fitted to VVS MiG-21PFM, next to the ASP-PF gunsight. It was intended, in conjunction with the radar and gunsight, for the detection of target aircraft in tailchase engagements and employment of all types of weapon at night and at all altitudes.

Sapfir (S-23)

The Sapfir radar was planned to equip the 1962 Ye-8 improved variant of the MiG-21, the first fighter to be intended for production as "MiG-23" but later cancelled.

It was planned to be produced in two phases, first phase was called "Sapfir-I" which was a conventional pulse radar design while the second phase would use the improved "Sapfir-II" which used early pulse-doppler (quasi-continuous) techniques. In the event Sapfir-I was sufficiently reduced in size to fit to the basic MiG-21 airframe, entering service in 1965 as the MiG-21S with Sapfir-21 radar. Sapfir-II was further developed into Sapfir-23 for the definitive variable-geometry MiG-23 design.

Sapfir-21 / RP-22 / Almaz?

NATO "Jay Bird"

OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP

Chief Designer: F. F. Volkov

Used an inverse-cassegrain antenna. Elements derived from Smerch series radar. Search range 30km, tracking range 15km versus a 16 sq m target.

RP-22S was fitted to the MiG-21S, used in Soviet service only from 1965 onwards.

RP-22SM was fitted to the upgraded MiG-21SM, also not exported, and later equipped the MiG-21bis which was exported once the RP-22SM was no longer considered "sensitive".

RP-22SMA probably RP-22SM-A (version for warpac)

RP-22SMA radar operation.

The pilot controls the RP-22SMA radar with the help of switches and light-buttons placed on the block 19, 19a and 19b control panels:

Control panel block 19

Switch #1 is a three-position switch used to turn on and off the radar. In the lowest position the radar is off. In the mid position the radar is preparing for operation (3.5 – 5 min). In the top position the radar is on.After the RADAR is turned on (the switch is in the top position) a red light APCh should turn on, and off. If the light fails to turn back off, the RADAR is not operational. Aside from that, the RADAR screen should light up.

Switch #2 is a three-position switch used to control the "compensation channel" and height of the beam. In the lowest possition the RADAR works in the standard regime. In the mid position, the compensation channel is turned on. In the top position the compensation channel is turned on, and the lower border of the scaning beam is lifted by +1.5 to +2deg over the horizon (this mode is reserved for low altitude intercepts).

Switch #3 is a two-position switch, which controls the "locked beam" mode. In the lower position the "locked beam" mode is off. In the upper position the beam is locked in 0° in azimuth and –1.5° in elevation. A green light over the switch signals this. This mode is used for launching Kh-66 beamriding radar guided missiles against ground targets.

This panel is located directly over the radar scope. On it, there are red light-buttons (if a button is pressed it lights up). Turning the light-button controls the brightness (The pic shows maximum brightness)

Control panel block 19A

  1. Button 1 – "interrogate" – turns on the IFF system
  2. Button 2 – "msc" – turns on the "speed selection" mode used to attack low speed targets
  3. Button 3 – "control" – automatic testing of the whole set
  4. Button 4 – "break-lock" – breaks a lock and returns to scan mode
  5. Button 5 – "meteo" – turns on the mode for compensating for difficult weather conditions
  6. Button 6 – "pass" – anti-passive jamming mode
  7. Buttons 7 and 8 – more anti-jamming modes

Control panel block 19B

Panel 19b is only used in wartime.

SEARCH MODE
In the search mode, the radar scans ±28° in azimuth and ±17° 40 min in elevation. Max range is 30km. The radar display shows the range and azimuth of the target. With the help of "higher" and "lower" marks, in pitch ranging from –25 to +8° , it displays the altitude difference. The display also shows the IFF status of the contact. Search mode gates the target before lock.

RP-22 radar scope in scan mode

  1. Friendly target (if the IFF is on)
  2. Foe target (if the IFF is on)
  3. A target below our plane
  4. Gate. It is controled by the pilot, using a switch on the throttle. The target has to be between the two horizontal lines to be locked.
  5. A target above our plane
  6. A target on the same altitude
  7. This light is on, when the RADAR is working in track mode, in active jamming conditions
  8. Red light, which warns if the RADAR is inoperational. It (RP-22) has to be turned off immediately if so





This is an ideal situation. In normal conditions there are dozens of smaller and bigger bright dots, and a couple of false targets (clouds, etc.). A pilot has to guess which target is the real one, utilising information from the navigator and different onboard devices. On the 1st pic the target is 10km away. On the second one, it is 5km away, and the pilot should be able to get a lock. To do that, he must press a button on the stick.

TRACK MODE

In the intercept (automatic track) mode, the scope displays the azimuth and elevation of the target, the range, the allowed launch zone, and calculates the range of the break-away.



RADAR scope in track mode.
  1. The range of azimuths allowed in the intercept
  2. Range markers
  3. Minimum allowed launch range
  4. Aiming mark
  5. Aiming ring
  6. Max allowed launch range
  7. "Seeker ready" light. This light is on, and the pilot hears a tone in the headphones when the missile has locked on the target 8. "Launch" light. Optimal launch conditions have been met. The pilot may launch
  8. "Breakaway" light – the pilot must immediately break the attack.

When using the LAZUR automatic guidance system, the three lights indicated give the direction to target. In the picture, the target it to the right (light #3 is on). Light number #1 indicates the target is on the left, and light #2 that the target is directly in front of us.

Sapfir-23/25

NATO "High Lark"

OKB: Phazotron NIIR

Chief Designer: G. M. Kunyavsky

Sapfir-23 twist-cassegrain antenna

Sapfir-23 was designed by a team under Chief Designer Kunyavsky for the MiG-23 fighter. A purely air-to-air design, it was the first radar for a frontal fighter designed to allow BVR engagements.

It used semiconductor technology rather than vacuum tubes and a method of external coherence in the mode "SDTs" (moving target selection) to detect aircraft flying below the host aircraft. This had limitations- it could only detect targets in the duration between successive pulses, and had multiple "blind" velocities in multiples of its PRF.

It used an analogue AVM-23 computer, and a twist-cassegrain antenna.

Some sources indicate that early versions could only detect closing targets. The incorporation of an IRST into the MiG-23 may therefore have been intended give a pursuit engagement capability.

Sapfir-23L
was the radar of the initial production MiG-23 (1970-71).

Sapfir-23D
was the full standard radar and the first with limited lookdown capability. Search range was 55km against a closing Tu-16 sized target, 45km against a MiG-21 in lookup mode. Tracking range was about 35km, again in lookup mode. Fitted to production MiG-23M. Lots of problems were encountered in service, as it required expert tuning and high quality maintenance. It wasn't uncommon for the detection range to vary 10 times from one set to the next. Weight about 500kg.

Sapfir-23D-Sh
was improved with better discrimination of low flying targets and improved ECCM. Fitted to later production MiG-23M, older MiG-23M were upgraded to this standard. "S-23D-III" found in some sources is a mistranslation of this variant (caused by Cyrillic "Sh" character, which is three vertical lines joined at the base).

Sapfir-23E
was fitted to MiG-23MF export variants. Based on Sapfir-23D with minor differences.

N003E Sapfir-23ML radar

N003 Sapfir-23ML was initially designed by G. M. Kunyavsky in the early-to-mid seventies, completed by Yury Kirpichev and introduced in 1976 as a major update to the Sapfir-23, after early service experience showed various deficiencies in the original radar. As part of a crash upgrade program, the radar was thoroughly modernised, increasing ECM resistance. The Sapfir-23ML's weight (around 350kg) was less than the original Sapfir-23, which helped improve the MiG-23's agility. Search range against a fighter was 55km in look-up mode, 20km in look-down mode. Against a Tu-16 (16 sq m), the detection range increased to 75-80 km and 22-25 km in look-up and look-down modes repectively. Tracking range against the same target was 46.5-50 km in lookup and 20-25 km in lookdown.

Yantar / Sapfir-23ML-2
was a variant designed for the MiG-29A, a cut-down MiG-29 intended to use existing technology to achieve IOC by 1979. Designed by Yuriy Figurovsky, it was a repackaged and slightly improved version of the MiG-23's radar. Difficulties in fitting it into the MiG-29 were overcome by enlarging the wing roots, but it was abandoned in 1976 along with the MiG-29A. All Phazotron's efforts were redirected to the urgent task of developing the Sapfir-25 radar.

N005 / Sapfir-25 / RP-25MN / S-500

Sapfir-25 was developed by a team under Kirpichev as a very high priority task after the defection of Viktor Belenko to Japan in 1976 compromised the MiG-25's radar. For speed of development, an existing radar had to be selected, and the MiG-23ML's radar, with its lookdown capability, was the obvious choice. Changes included the use of a larger antenna.

Detection range in lookup mode against a Tu-16 was 105-115km head-on. Tracking range against the same target was about 75-80km. Lookdown mode reduced these ranges to 27-30km and 22-25km respectively.

Detection ange against a MiG-21 in lookup mode was 70km head-on, while tracking range was about 50-60km.

Weight was 337kg. Used AVM-25 analog computer.

Compared to Smerch-A it could engage faster targets at higher altitudes, featured greater search and tracking range, provided lookdown/shootdown capability and close combat modes. It had 30° (±15deg) and 60° (±30 deg) azimuth search patterns, ±14° in elevation.. It also had better anti-jamming protection. Azimuth scanning limits were slightly reduced to ±56° , elevation to +52/-42° , by the twist-cassegrain antenna design.

N006 Ametist / Sapfir-23MLA / Sapfir-23PA w
as a further improved version of N003/Sapfir-23ML radar, used on the MiG-23MLA (?) and final production MiG-23P variants. Probably has most of the capabilities of Sapfir-23MLA-2.

N008 Sapfir-23MLA-2
was fitted to existing MiG-23s from 1984 during upgrade to MiG-23MLD (23-18) standard. Their whole avionics suite was greatly updated, including the radar, IRST, IFF, with the fitting of R-73 AAMs and an HMS. While some sources allege a multiple target track capability, former Soviet pilots deny this, and it is not true. MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure) was 60 hours.

N008E Sapfir-23MLAE-2
was the export variant of the above. It has three primary modes- search (with sub-modes for lookup and lookdown), single target track, and close air combat.

Close combat mode uses a vertical scan in two vertical bars – 6° in azimuth and +42/-1.5 degin elevation, up to 9 km in distance with semi-auto target track. The target has to be ‘put' into the HUD's (sight's) field of view. It is not good for tracking targets maneuvering at low level towards the ground due to excessive clutter. The radar antenna 'slaves' the R-60MK or R-73 seeker towards the target in this mode.

N008E also has two new search sub-modes. The first is called PSTs, used for better target discrimination in lookdown – with improved Doppler selection of moving targets at altitude above 50m (150ft) – useful for operations over mountains with high ridges or over urban areas which otherwise would generate strong false targets masking the real target. The second mode is called MPH – designed to counter chaff and cloud reflections at medium/high altitude, which would otherwise mask the real target.

Sapfir-23MR
radar intended for the early Su-27 designs (T-10) with a fighter target range of 40-70 km lookup, 20-40 km lookdown in both front and rear hemispheres for a fighter target.

Sapsan (Sapsan-E)

Sapsan-E pod displayed at MAKS 2003

Sapsan uses a stabilized optical channel in a revolving head, to which TV (optional TI), a laser rangefinder, and a laser target illuminator are attached. The vertical movement of the optical head is from +10 to -150° , and it rotates +150° to either side, covering all but the rear quarter of the aircraft. It can be used in conjunction with laser- or TV-guided munitions.

Shar-25

ELINT system of MiG-25RBF. Realtime datalink.

Shachta

ECM system fitted to Mi-8TSh

Shkval

OKB: Krasnogorsk OMZ

Shkval Su-25T installation

I-25I Shkval The Shkval system designed for the Su-25T (and Ka-50) includes a high-resolution TV camera, with a 27° by 36° field of view wide-angle mode for search and a 0.7° , 23x magnification narrow-angle mode for targeting, and a laser target designator (Pritchal) boresighted to the camera.

Shkval detects, tracks and identifies fixed and moving ground targets and slow airborne targets. It has manual, software corrected and automatic tracking. It can iteroperate with the navigation system, the radar and thermal imager pod (if fitted).

Shkval footage from the Su-25T tests

 

The Shkval system is steerable through 35° to either side of the aircraft, and from 15° above the centerline to 80° below. Its range against tank-sized targets was 8 km.

Prichal operates at 1.064 micron wavelength. It uses a 5Hz pulse repetition rate in rangefinding and 10-25Hz in illumination mode. It has greater range than the older Klen-PS and a narrower beam of 1.5 angular minutes. Rangefinding error was no more than ±5m, maximum range 10km, weight was 46kg and maximum power consumption 4.8kW.

Shkval engaging a tank

Shkval detection range was 20-24km for a large landmark like a bridge, 15km for a single building, 10km for a fighter and 6km for a helicopter.

Shkval engaging a low-speed Tu-16

 

I-25IV Shkval-V for Ka-50 is basically the same system.

Shkval display in Ka-50 cockpit

Shkval-M is an upgraded version that was intended for the Su-25TM. It can perform automatic search and correlative target ID in scanning mode, cued by the Kopyo-25 radar or the aircraft's onboard navigation system. Shkval-M also finds threats illuminated by ground based designators, and can be used to designate targets for engagement by Krasnopol laser guided artillery shells.

Another view of the Shkval display in a Ka-50

Shmel

OKB: NPO Vega (NII-17)

Chief Designers: Vladimir Ivanov (system), V Pogreshayev (radar), O Rezepov (computer)

Shmel is mounted in a rotodome on the A-50

Shmel was designed in the mid-to-late seventies, when it became clear that a replacement for the Tu-126 and its Liana radar was necessary. Initially, it was conceived as an update to Liana, and was intended for retrofit to the Tu-126. However, the weight and bulk of the radar and its associated equipment spiralled upwards, and soon it became clear that a new carrier was needed. Beriev's A-50 proposal of an Il-76 conversion was ordered, along with the Schmel radar system.

Shmel works in frequencies from 2 to 4 GHz, minimum peak power output is 1MW, and it is frequency agile from low PRF to high PRF. The transmitter is mounted at the rear and lead shielded for protection of the crew.

Primary flat plate antenna is integrated with an IFF interrogator and datalink antennas in a 9m diameter disc radome . Standard rotation is 6 turns/min. It is mechanically scanned in azimuth, electronically scanned in elevation up to 20°.

It is a 3D radar, giving target elevation information. It has passive direction finding capability, IFF interrogate function, and fighter control via digital datalink. It was also plagued by reliability and overload problems with its digital computers, which limited the number of targets that could be simultaneously tracked to 50-60 and also limited range to about 150km. Can control 10 intercepts via digital datalink.

Shmel-2 has a new digital computer that generally solves the reliability problems of Shmel. It has a longer target detection range, and can track 100-150 simultaneous targets. Generally similar in performance to an early model E-3A Sentry AWACS. Fitted to the A-50M. Can control 15 intercepts via digital datalink. Possibly entered service in 1993.

Shmel-M was designed for the A-50U updated version. Increased ECM resistance, with further improvements to range and number of targets tracked raised to 200-300. Not in service.

Shmel-2 is supposedly fitted to the A-50E export version for China. It is said to track 200-300 targets, control 30 intercepts via secure datalink (15 by radio voice commands), which sounds like Schmel-M.

Shompol

OKB: NPO Vega (NII-17)

Shompol replaced the Sablya in service on the MiG-25RBSh. It could operate at heights from 300 to 23,000m, and its resolution was 2-3 times greater. It introduced a moving target selection mode and a combined MTS/mapping mode. Also fitted to Tu-22RDM between 1981 and 1982.

Shpil-2M

Shpil-2M pod carried below the Su-24MR centreline

Laser radar pod of Su-24MR. 0.25 m resolution, covers a strip as wide as 4 times the host aircraft's altitude.

Shtik

Synthetic aperture, side looking radar which has moving target indication and high resolution mapping modes (5m). Covers an area from 4 to 28 km from either side of the aircraft.

Siren / Gvozdika

SPS-141MVG pod

Siren-F / Siren-FSh / Siren-1D-OSh / SPS-141 / SPS-141M / SPS-141MVG

SPS-141MVG-E / SPS-142 / SPS-143

This series covers a whole range of individual jamming stations equipping attack aircraft and bombers.

SPS-141MVG-E Gvozdika is pod-mounted on the Su-25. Jams 2 distinct bands. It works in four modes: individual protection, two-aircraft protection (both aircraft having the SPS-141, cooperating with each other in jamming the enemy radar), "Doppler noise" mode, and low-level mode, where the equipment uses the terrain bounce effect in jamming.

Other Gvozdika models feature repetition pulse jamming, noise jamming, flickering, range/velocity stealing.

Siren series jammer is fitted to Tu-95K-22

SPS-141MVG

Sirena-2 (SPO-2)

RWR used on MiG-21F. It was capable of detecting a radar lock from the rear hemisphere only, with audio warning.

Sirena-3 (SPO-3)

SPO-3 wingtip pods

An improved RWR used on the MiG-21R; also used as part of the ECM system SPS-100 Rezeda.

Sirena-3M (SPO-10)

Sirena-3M (SPO-10) cockpit display

Airborne H- through J-band airborne analog radar warning receiver. Fitted to many Soviet tactical aircraft including MiG-23). Gives quadrant-based direction only. Replaced by SPO-15 system.

Smalta

Jammer fitted to ECM An-12 variant

Smerch (RP-S)

NATO "Big Nose", "Fox Fire"

Tikhomirov NIIP

Smerch-A inverse-cassegrain antenna

RP-S Smerch, designed by F. F. Volkov, was the first really useful airborne intercept radars to be developed in the USSR. It was designed to detect and destroy incoming bombers at the maximum range possible. It began life as the Uragan radar for various interceptor projects. Uragan-5B was designed for the Mikoyan E-150 series, with K-9 missiles. Installed in an inlet centrebody, it didn't really achieve its required performance. Uragan-5B-80 was a redesign for the Tu-28P with K-80 missiles. This was a far more successful radar, which was redesignated Smerch when it entered service. Unlike previous interceptors, space was not at a premium on the Tu-128 which allowed the Smerch to achieve significant advances in detection ranges over previous Soviet radars within the limits of the bulky vacuum tube electronics then available. The Smerch had a large antenna, the destinctive bulged nose of the Tu-128 giving rise to the NATO codename, "Big Nose". It was a low-PRF pulse design. Smerch could detect a bomber at 80km, track it at 50km and engage with an R-4R missile at 32km, giving it a true beyond-visual-range (BVR) capability for the first time in the USSR. It had azimuth limits of ±60°, scanning ±6° in elevation.

Smerch-A showing detail of antenna drive

 

RP-SA / RP-25 / Smerch-A / Izdeliye 720 was first introduced into service on the improved Tu-128A model. This improved Smerch design was used as the basis of the MiG-25's RP-25 radar. It weighed 500kg. The Smerch-A1 as fitted to the MiG-25 prototypes introduced a second, secret operating wavelength of 2cm in addition to the standard 3cm to ensure the radar would function even in a heavy ECM environment. Smerch-A1 could detect a bomber with 16 sq m RCS at about 100km, with tracking range remaining about 50km. By the time it entered production, improvements in jamming resistance and low-level clutter tolerance had been achieved. Smerch-A2 / Izdeliye 720M gave improved reliability, and was the standard radar, and Smerch-A3 more improvements, which were fitted to later model MiG-25Ps as they rolled off the production line. Smerch-A4 was presented for testing, featuring a rudimentary look-down capability, but by this time the sucessful deployment of the Sapfir-23 radar with a different method of clutter rejection that was rather more successful made the Smerch family redundant. The subsequent defection of Viktor Belenko with a MiG-25P compromised the secrets of the Smerch-A radar and ensured its rapid withdrawal from Soviet service, though refurbished sets were fitted to new build MiG-25PDs for export.

Smerch-A2 radar display on an Algerian MiG-25PD

RP-SM Smerch-M was the final iteration of the Smerch design used on the Tu-128M. Smerch-M reduced the weapons system's minimum combat altitude from 8,000-10,000 m down to 500-1,500 m while enhancing its jamming resistance. Probably equivalent to Smerch-A2/A3.

Smerch-AS was intended for the Su-15, giving all three interceptors (Su-15, Tu-128, MiG-25) a common radar system. It wasn't an easy fit, however, and instead Oryol-D58 was fitted in the short term, while the definitive radar became the Smerch derivative Taifun.

Smerch-100 / Groza / Vikhr

OKB: Phazotron NIIR

Smerch-100 was a late sixties design for the MiG-25MP (later MiG-31) and advanced Tupolev interceptors. Its designers, Phazotron NIIR, made extravagant claims for its performance. It was to be a combined radar/infrared fire control system. The Smerch-100 FCS comprised an FMICW phased array radar (PAR) based on the Sapfir-23 technical base with a huge 2m antenna dish, an infrared target acquisition and tracking system mated with the radar, a digital computer and additional side-view radar antennae. The Smerch-100 developer promised to provide the system with a 3,000-3,500km head-on acquisition range for aerial targets similar to the Tu-16, 600km lateral scanning acquisition range as well as 100km infrared acquisition range.

The Smerch-100 system was supposed to ensure launching and guiding the air-to-air missiles at a range of 250 km when attacking targets head on. Such a radar would enable a single interceptor to keep tabs on a vast sector of the aerospace and be to some extent used as a AWACS aircraft in support of the local air defence zone and other interceptors.

Plans for the first stage of development provided for outfitting the interceptor with K-100 combined infrared/radar homing missiles featuring various warheads and an effective range of 80 km. In the future, there could be transition to longer-range air-to-air missiles since the Smerch-100 was capable of handling them. The Smerch-100 fire control system was expected to have full lookdown capability, encompassing the destruction of targets travelling at a speed of 500- 4,500km/h at altitudes between 50m and 35,000m. A joint automatic data exchange system for receiving data on various targets and commands from command posts and transferring it to other aircraft was also part of the design.

Two prototype radars designated Groza and Vikhr were produced, but were not successful in tests. NIIR had failed to solve the two problems of detecting small objects against ground clutter, and tracking multiple targets simultaneously.

Given the state of digital technology in the USSR at the time such a radar was far beyond the realms of possibility. Indeed even today it would be a tall order. All documentation for the project was passed over to NIIP.

The far more realistic NIIP Zaslon project officially replaced the Smerch-100 in 1971, eventually entering service in 1983.

Sobol

Advanced derivative of Oryol radar with 950mm diameter radar suggested for Su-15. Was rejected in favour of a less ambitious upgrade (Oryol-D58) for an interim fit with Smerch to follow.

Sokol (1) /RP-6

NATO: "Scan Three"

OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP

Chief Designer: G. M. Kunyavsky

Radar of the Yak-25M. Detection range for a bomber was 33-35 km.

Improved variants Sokol-M, Sokol-2, and then Sokol-2K variants were proposed for the successor Yak-27K, but the plane was never produced.

Sokol (2)

See Zhuk

Sopka

Terrain following radar fitted to the Tu-160 and linked to the Obzor-K radar

Soyuz

OKB: NPO Istok

An experimental radar of the late 1970s/early 1980s, possibly based partly on stolen information on the APG-65. NPO Istok designed and built 3 prototype radars with digital signal processing, planar antenna, and ground mapping capabilities, one of which was tested in an airborne platform. However, it was strictly a technology demonstrator, and the N001 and N019 production radars that eventually entered service were far less sophisticated. Some of the technology eventually ended up in the N010 Zhuk and N011 Bars radars.

Sorbtsiya

OKB: KNIRTI

Sorbtsiya wingtip ECM pods

SPS-171 / L005S /Sorbtsiya-S works in the H/I band and consists of two pods installed on the wingtips of the Su-27, an interface with the mission computer, and a control panel in the cockpit. Each pod has phased-array antennas fore and aft. The middle section of the Sorbtsiya houses the receivers, emitters, and techniques generator. Among the jamming techniques employed by the system are noise jamming and terrain bouncing. The electronic phased-array antenna permits detection over a wide frequency range and the direction of more than ten jamming beams against air-to-air and surface-to-air threats.

The installation of the pods on the wingtips has many advantages explained Boris Akinshin, deputy chief designer at KNIRTI. First, the wide space between each pod allows a better coverage of the environment around the aircraft and better signal localization. In addition, the design of the pod is such that it can listen to and jam a threat simultaneously. For instance, when entering a threat zone, the forward part of the right pod will listen, searching for a ground-to-air threat, while the forward part of the left pod will perform the jamming. Such a division of work can be achieved with the rear part of the pods as well.

The Sorbtsya system is already fitted to some Russian Su-27s, and it is available for export. Sources indicate that the People's Republic of China is perhaps the most likely candidate to receive the new pods.

SPS-171/172 fitted internally to Tu-22M3

Internal arrangement of the Sorbstiya

SPS-1 / SPS-2

ECM systems fitted to the Tu-16SPS. 42 had SPS-1 and 102 had SPS-2. SPS-1 created 50-120W interference in 20-300cm band, while SPS-2 created 250-300W interference in the 9.5-12.5cm band. They were manually operated, with a dedicated operator who had to determine the radar to be jammed, work out its frequency, using the SRS-1BV and SRS-1D radio reconnaissance systems, and then tune the jamming transmitter to the appropriate frequency. Even well- prepared operators needed about 2-3 minutes to carry out this task, which could mean the enemy aircraft getting close enough to burn through the jamming. They were also ineffective against multichannel or retunable radars.

SPS-4

See Klyukva

SPS-5

See Fasol

SPS-6

See Los

SPS-22

See Buket

SPS-33

See Buket

SPS-44

See Buket

SPS-55

See Buket

SPS-61

See Azaliya

SPS-62

See Azaliya

SPS-63

See Azaliya

SPS-64

See Azaliya

SPS-65

See Azaliya

SPS-66

See Azaliya

SPS-68

See Azaliya

SPS-77

Jammer for low level operation. Possibly part of the Buket suite

SPS-100

See Rezeda

SPS-120

See Kaktus

SPS-141

See Siren

SPS-142

See Siren

SPS-143

See Siren

SPS-151

See Lyutik

SPS-152

See Lyutik

SPS-153

See Lyutik

SPS-161

See Geran

SPS-162

See Geran

SPS-171

See Sorbtsiya

SPS-172

See Sorbtsiya

SRS-1BV / SRS-1D

ELINT system used with the SPS-1/2 jammers on Tu-16SPS

SRS-4 Romb (Izdeliyie 30)

ELINT system of MiG-25RB. SRS-4A, -4B and -4V subvariants.

Rhomb-4 fitted to Il-20.

SRS-9 (Izdeliyie 31)

ELINT system of MiG-25RBV.

SRS-13

ELINT system

Styk MR-1

Synthetic aperture side looking radar used on Su-24MR giving a resolution of 5 to 7.5m, covering an area from 4 to 28km outwards from the aircraft centerline.

Taifun (1) / RP-26

NATO "Twin Scan"

OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP

Chief designer: F F Volkov

Taifun-M mounted on an in-service Su-15TM.

Developed for the Su-15TM updated interceptor, the Taifun was derived from the Smerch-A radar of the MiG-25P but smaller with slightly inferior performance.

RP-26 Taifun initial version, fitted to Su-15T. Proved very troublesome, the experimental units constructed by the developer (NIIP) being rather poor. The initial production sets, produced by Leninetz who built the series Smerch-A, proved rather better, and were used to finish testing.

RP-26M Taifun-M definitive version. Initial conical radome produced undesirable interference, reducing range, leading to a new ogival radome. Used in conjunction with the R-98 AAM.

Search range, in free space: 60-70 km (bomber) 45-55 km (fighter)
Tracking range, in free space: 40-45km (bomber) 35-40km (fighter)
Search range at low altitudes: 10-12km (bomber) 6-10km (fighter)
Tracking range at low altitudes: 7-10km (bomber) 5-10km (fighter)

Taifun-M2 final production version, introduced after Belenko's defection which compromised the Smerch-A radar which Taifun was based on. While the MiG-25 got a new radar, the Su-15 simply got an update.

Taifun / VSP-K / L-067

Refitted to Tu-16K-10-26P in 1979-80 to replace the Ritsa system, Taifun searched for US warships via their radar emissions. Ranges of 380-400km for target reconniasance mode and 350-380km for target designation mode were achieved. It did not prove especially useful in service, however.

Tangazh

ELINT pod of Su-24MR. Also fitted (internally?) to MiG-25RBT.

Torii

Experimental radar designed by A. B. Slepouchkine, used on I-320, also intended for Yak-25. Never entered service.

TP-23 / Spektr

TP-23 IRST

Infra-red search and track system fitted to MiG-23M. TP-23 was also fitted to early Su-24 models. Search limits on the MiG-23 installation were +3°/-12° in elevation and +30°/-30° in azimuth. TP-23 could detect a Tu-16 at 30 km, and a MiG-23 at 20km, on a pursuit course.

TP-23-1 fitted to export MiG-23MF, MiG-23ML

TP-23M modernised version developed for Soviet MiG-23ML. Search range of TP-23M against a Tu-16 target was increased to 35-40km, and against a MiG-23 to 25km.

TP-26

TP-26 IRST

Infra-red radar search and track system fitted to MiG-23MLA/MLD. Range is said to be up to 85 km for a tail-on engagement with an afterburning bomber-sized target, or 60km non-afterburning (Piotr Butowski says 60km maximum). IRST has 5 operating modes depending on the distance to the target. The sensor is mounted under the nose, behind a triangular glass fairing. Some pilots have suggested it has better performance than the MiG-29's KOLS.

TP-26Sh1

Infra-red search and track system fitted to MiG-25PD. Presumably based on the TP-26. Range given as 45km against a high altitude bomber (aspect unknown).

TsD-30 / RP-21 / RP-9

NATO "Spin Scan"

OKB-1

Chief Designer: A A Kolosov

RP-21 inverse-cassegrain antenna

TsD-30 / RP-21 / RP-9

The working principle of the RP-21 relies on a continuously transmitting antenna that is move mechanically in horizontal lines +/-30° from the centerline as well as vertically +/- 10° . The maximum detection range is 20 km with a maximum of 10 km for locking on for a Tu-16 sized target. Performance against a fighter is 13 km and 7 km respectively.

TsD-30T / RP-21 / RP-9U was fitted to early model MiG-21PF and Su-9. RP-21 had 4 operating modes- 'Search', 'Acquisition','Pursuit', 'Taking Aim'. The antenna is gyro-stabilized between +/-60° of bank and +/- 40° of pitch.

TsD-30TP / RP-21M / RP-9UK fitted to late model (aircraft c/n 76210703 onwards) MiG-21PF/PFM and late model Su-9. The TsD-30TP had jamming protection, a roll-stabilized antenna and a larger position display. An additional feature of the TsD-30TP radar was the fixed-beam target illumination function, which allowed use of K-5 AAMs.

RP-21MA export version of RP-21M, equipped some MiG-21M export version (possibly WarPac)

RP-21ML export version of RP-21M, equipped some MiG-21M export version (possibly non-WarPac nations)

TsP-1

K-9 AAM-armed E-152A and E-152 aircraft were to be fitted with the K-9 system with TsP-1 radar, developed by the Design Bureau-1 (now the Almaz central design bureau) and featuring 30-km detection range.

Uragan

OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP

Uragan was an intercept radar proposed for various interceptor project from the late 50s. Separate scan/track antennas.

Uragan-5B was designed for the E-150 series, with K-9 missiles. Radar did not enter service. Worked in 3 modes- Search (30km), Track (20km) and Illumination. Transmitter power was 4 times greater, and it had a large single antenna.

Uragan-5B-80 designed for the Tu-28P with K-80 missiles. Redesignated Smerch

Uspekh

NATO "Big Bulge"

OKB: Kvant Research Institute

Uspekh-1A is the radar of the Tu-95RTs. 400km range. It was developed by the Kiev-based Kvant Research Institute (who also designed many shipborne naval radars) in the early 1960s and accepted for service in 1966.

The Uspekh-1A system mounted in the Tu-95RTs put a large search radar in the bomb bay ("Big Bulge"). The undernose radome replaced the Rubidiy-MM radar bombsight of the basic Tu-95 and was used for a datalink system. The maximum range of the radar is claimed to be 400km.

Uspekh-2A is the radar of the Ka-25Ts. Uspekh-2A s featured a large search radar ("Big Bulge") in the nose. This replaced the Initsiativa ("Mushroom") radar of the basic Ka-25PL. The radar imagery datalink antenna was positioned underneath the rear tail. Range of the radar is claimed to be about 250km, perhaps due to a smaller antenna and/or transmitter than the Tu-95RTs.

The Ka-25Ts could not designate targets on its own- it simply acted as a relay back to the ship. On the ship or sub, the operator saw the radar screen image transmitted from the Ka-25Ts, and was able to select a target. The ship or sub could then steer the missile via a command link to the vicinity of the target where its onboard radar could take over.

Vishnia

SIGINT equipment for listening to communications, fitted to Il-20

Viyuga (BA-58?)

ESM pod for detecting, identifying radars and handing target information to Kh-27PS/Kh-25MP missiles.

Voskhod

A metric wavelength SLAR intended for the MiG-25R. Not produced.

YaD / A-336Z

NATO "Crown Drum" ("Top Crown"?)

Radar of the Tu-95K-20.

YeN

NATO "Puff Ball"

Radar of the Tu-16K-10. A massive set, frequency spacing allowed simultaneous launch of 18 missiles by a single group. It also could steer 60° either side in azimuth, which allowed the plane to turn off of a direct collision course, limited to 9-12° of bank by the stabilisation of the antenna. Range was 320km.

Later versions increased range by changing the frequency and length of outgoing pulses. Range was increased to as much as 450km.

Yen-R was a further tweaked model especially for the Tu-16RM-1 recce version. With a pulse power of 180kW, range was up to 480km, and it could detirmine the largest ship of a group.

Zaslon / S-800 / RP-31 / N007

NATO "Flash Dance"

OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP

Designer: Alfred Fedotchenko

Zaslon antenna shown at MAKS airshow

The N007 Zaslon was the first phased-array radar to enter service on a fighter aircraft. In 1968, Phazotron had been tasked with developing the radar for the future MiG-31. Engineers prepared two prototype units, dubbed Groza and Vikhr, both based on Sapfir-series technology. The final version was called Smerch-100, but the radar failed to meet requirements. As a result, in 1971 Phazotron was ordered to pass all the documentation to its consortium partner NIIP. The result was the Zaslon radar. The task was very difficult, since one of the main requirements was engaging cruise missiles, and the experienced Phazotron had failed to solve the problem of detecting small objects against ground clutter and tracking multiple targets simultaneously. Finally all the problems were solved, with lots of assistance from NPO Istok, who helped design the phased array, and Leninetz who were to build it, and the system finally reached service in December 1981. Zaslon is double the weight of the AWG-9, the largest US fighter radar. The NIIP team believed that the advantages a phased-array radar gave in terms of near-instantaneous scanning and multitarget engagement capability (a typical mechanically-scanned antenna can take 12-14 seconds to complete a scan) were worth the weight and cost penalties. First tests of the radar were conducted in 1973, and it was first flown on a test aircraft in 1976. On February 15, 1978, a mission in which ten targets were detected and tracked was performed for the first time. In 1981, MiG-31 aircraft carrying the Zaslon radar entered service with the Air Defense aviation, and became fully operational in 1983.

The 1.1m diameter, 30cm deep, phased array antenna weighs 300kg, the whole radar weighing in at 1000kg. Zaslon uses an Argon-15A computer (first airborne digital computer designed in USSR). Zaslon operates in 9-9.5 GHz band. It detects and engages targets down to 25m, including cruise missiles. Maximum possible search range is 300km for a large airborne target.

Range, headon, versus bomber: 180-200km search, 120-150km track

Range, tailchase, versus bomber: 90km search, 70km track

Range, headon, versus fighter : 120-130km search, 90km track

Zaslon can detect targets as small as 0.3 sq. m radar cross-section (RCS) to a maximum range of 65 km

Radar scan limits are ±70 azimuth, +70/-60 elevation.

Target track TWS mode, track 10 and engage 4.

Average power transmitted is 2.5kW.

MTBF is 55 hours.

Zaslon display showing 5 targets

Target entering engagement zone (?)

Zaslon-A security of the Zaslon system was compromised by the US spy A. Tolkachev. This lead to development of an updated version, fitted to MiG-31B from 1990, retrofitted to some earlier models during rebuilding to MiG-31BS standard. It had a new data processor, giving extended capabilities, longer range and better ECM resistance.

Zaslon-M 1.4m diameter antenna, 50% to 100% better performance than Zaslon. In April 1994 used with an R-37 to hit a target at 300km distance. Search range 400km versus a 19/20 sq m RCS target. Tracks 24 targets at once, engages 6. Supposedly able to engage launched Pershing-2 missiles in flight with long-range R-37 active radar-guided missiles. Project ended as no new MiG-31s will be built.

Zaslon-AM all MiG-31s remaining in service are supposed to have their radars upgraded to Zaslon-AM status by Leninets, according to a design put forward by NIIP that keeps the existing antenna while replacing the old Argon-15A processors with Baget series processors.

Zima

Infra-red reconnaissance system of Su-24MR, able to detect temperature differences of just 0.3° C. Scans an area of 3.4 times aircraft height. Downloads directly to ground via VPS-1 datalink or records to film in 7 shades of grey.

Zhuk / N010

OKB: Phazotron NIIR

Chief Designer: Yuri Guskov

Zhuk (Phazotron website)

The original Zhuk radar was designed by in the mid eighties for the MiG-29M, an update of the MiG-29 intended to rectify the shortcomings of the original MiG-29. Tested from 1987 on a special MiG-29 (9-16) testbed machine, and drawing on the NPO Istok Soyuz program, the Zhuk was intended to be the first truly multimode radar developed in the former Soviet Union, with a full range of air-air and air-ground modes enabling the host aircraft to perform a wide range of tasks. It used improved TS101 series processors and a slotted antenna. Political changes in the early nineties meant that the MiG-29M was first postponed and then cancelled. The Russian air force was not especially impressed with the original Zhuk radar, as it did not significantly increase the air-to-air detection and tracking range, preventing exploitation of the full capabilities of the extended range R-27 and R-77 missiles. It is also thought that the prototype Zhuk did not have the air-to-surface modes fully implemented.

Phazotron have since developed a whole family of radars based on the Zhuk, tailored to installation on different aircraft, and with varying levels of capability. The Kopyo is based largely on Zhuk technology, repackaged for installation into light fighters such as the MiG-21. Zhuk is a large radar for its performance class, as might be expected from the crude and bulky electronics of the former Soviet Union at the time it was designed.

Depending on range, the radar has +20, +60, or even +90° of detection/track angle in azimuth and two or four bars in elevation (+60/-40° maximum). 680mm diameter antenna. The radar could cooperate with the new R-77 (AA-12) missiles with active radar seekers. Two missiles could be launched against two separate targets at the same time, and two others shortly afterwards. The radar works in X band. Zhuk has 5 kW peak power and 1 kW average power.

Weight: 250kg

Air to air modes:

  • Velocity search
  • RWS (Range-While-Search) mode
    • Lookup: 80-85km range
    • lookdown head-on: 80-85km range
    • lookdown tailchase: 40-50km range
  • TWS (Track-While-Scan) mode
    • tracks simultaneously 10 targets, automatically selects the most dangerous 2 to 4 of them, engaging them with R-77 missiles out to 60km
  • STT (Single Target Tracking)
  • Raid assessment
  • Close combat modes
    • Wide angle
    • Vertical scan
    • HUD view
    • Boresight
    • Slewable
  • Recognition of target types and quality
  • Detection and engagement of hovering helicopters

Air to surface modes:

  • Real beam mapping
  • DBS (Doppler Beam Sharpening) mapping
  • SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) ground mapping
  • Multiple target tracking
  • Map freeze and zoom
  • Sea surface surveillance: Range 120-150km vs a large ship.
  • Ground Moving Target Indication
  • Ground ranging
  • Ground speed measurement
  • Beacon interrogation
  • Terrain avoidance
  • Employment of unguided munitions on receipt of radar information ('blind' bombing").

Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, Phazotron developed a series of radars based on the Zhuk. The splitting of Phazotron and NIIP, the latter responsible for the N011 designed for the Su-27M, resulted in rival studies for Zhuk derivatives to fit on advanced Sukhoi Su-27 variants. Also, the Kopyo radar was designed, based on Zhuk technology, specifically for the purpose of upgrading older aircraft such as the MiG-21.

Zhuk-8II

This version was designed to fit the Chinese F-8II interceptor, after the intended AN/APG-66 radars became unavailable due to US sanctions. It has slightly downgraded capabilities: maximum range is 90 km against a bomber and 70 km against a fighter; it can detect ten targets, track two of them, and fire a missile at a single target. The maximum field of view was reduced to +85° in azimuth and in elevation to +55/-40° . Weight is 240kg. It turns the somewhat obsolescent F-8II into a more useful aircraft, with multimode capabilities. This radar may be in service in China.

Zhuk-27

Zhuk-27 (Phazotron website)

Zhuk-27 represents a simple repackaging of the basic Zhuk design for the Su-27 airframe. It certainly sports a larger antenna than the standard model, perhaps with greater transmitter power too. Scan limits are slightly reduced, to ±85° in azimuth, and weight increased to 275kg. The changes increase detection range of a fighter target to 130km, tracking range to 90km.

Zhuk-PH was a more radical upgrading of the basic Zhuk design for Su-27 size aircraft. It added a new phased-array antenna, and also featured a high PRF velocity search mode for maximum detection range, without range information. Search range was predicted to be 165km and 140km against a 3 sq m RCS target in velocity search mode and range-while-search respectively. The phased-array antenna took the weight to 275-300kg, while scan limits were ±70° in azimuth and elevation. 24 targets could be tracked at once, and 6 to 8 engaged simultaneously.

Evolved into Sokol (Zhuk-MSF) radar.

Zhuk-M

Zhuk-M mounted on a MiG-29

Zhuk-M features a greater air and sea target detection range, enhanced resolution against ground in synthetic aperture radar mode, as well as an advanced "Baget" series computer. Compared to the N019 radar installed on the majority of MiG-29s, Phazotron achieved greater target detection range, observation angles in azimuth close to 90° , greater number of targets that can be detected and attacked, air-to-surface capability, use of the R-27ER1 and RVV-AE missiles, as well as targeting of the Kh-31A and Kh-35 missiles.

Look-up range is 130km head-on, 50km tail-on versus fighter target.

Look-down range is 120km head-on, 40km tail-on versus fighter target.

TWS mode tracks 10-20 targets and engages 2-4.

Weight: 220-250kg
Volume: 400dm3
Antenna: 624mm diameter, 34.5dB gain
Peak power output: 6kW
Average power output: 1.5kW
Power required: 12 kVA AC, 1.5 kVA DC
MTBF: 200h

Zhemchoug

Zhemchoug (Phazotron website)

Zhemchoug was developed by Phazotron in cooperation with China for J-10 and FC-1 projects, its a version of the Zhuk-M with Chinese IFF and other changes. Substantially lighter than Zhuk at just 180kg, with equal or better capabilities. Its planar array antenna helps keep down costs and weight compared to phased array designs. It detects simultaneously 20 targets, selects the most dangerous 4 of them, tracks and attacks them. Proposed for MiG-29 upgrades.

Detection range: 80 km, lock-on range 60 km.

RP-35

RP-35

RP-35 was a Zhuk derivative with a phased-array radar, sized for the MiG-35 project at approximately 800mm diameter. Range against a 3 sq m RCS target is 140km headon, 65km pursuit. TWS of 24 targets was expected.

Weight: 220kg
Volume: 500dm3

Current status uncertain.

Zhuk-MS

Zhuk-MS

Zhuk-MS is an Su-27 sized version of Zhuk-M. Peak power is increased to 6 kW and average power to 1.5 kW. The antenna diameter is enlarged to 960 mm with 37dB gain.

Scanning zone is ±20, ±30, or ±60° in azimuth and 2 or 4 bars in elevation. Scanning limits are ±90° , +60/-40° in elevation.

of detection/track angle in azimuth and two or four bars in elevation (+60/-40° maximum).

The maximum range was quoted as 140 km headon, and 50 km in tailchase. In flight testing in 2004 a range of 200km (80km in tailchase) was demonstrated against an 'armed Su-27' type target (15 sq m RCS), which implies actual figures for a standard 5 sq m RCS target would be 150km headon, 60km in tailchase.

The radar can track 10 targets simultaneously and can engage 4 to 6 targets at once with R-77 missiles. It introduced synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) modes (3 m resolution) and terrain-following modes in the air-to-ground role.

Zhuk-MS is currently tested on the Su-27KUB

Zhuk-MSF / Sokol

OKB: Phazotron NIIR

Zhuk-MSF non-equidistant phased antenna

Zhuk-MSF is the most up to date radar design by Phazotron. Sokol uses a non-equidistant rather than the traditional linear radar field distribution, which, Phazotron says, allows a fivefold radar cost reduction over a traditionally designed phased array radar. The production radar will have a 980mm antenna diameter (37dB gain) and weigh 275kg. The radar tracks 24 targets, automatically selecting and engaging the most dangerous 6 to 8 of them. Its electronic beam steering will give ±70° spatial coverage in both axes. Power output is 8kW peak, 2 - 3kW average. It is designed for high reliability, and is frequency agile with LPI and anti ECM features. Phazotron says it will be capable of interleaving between air-to-air and air-to-ground modes.

Velocity search: 245km head-on vs fighter target.(This figure is no longer quoted- the mode may have been removed)

Range-while-search, lookup mode: 180-190km head-on / 80km tail-on vs fighter target.

Range-while-search, lookdown mode : 170km head-on / 60km tail-on vs fighter target.

Track-while-scan mode: 150km head-on vs fighter target.

Against a large target such as a bomber or AWACS aircraft detection range comfortably exceeds 300km.