This page is a long alphabetical listing of all available
information on Russian and Former Soviet Union avionics items
(radar, IRST, EO, ECM etc) from 1950 to today. Use the search
facility in your browser to search for the item you wish to
MiG-21 (4+ Publications)
Su-25 (4+ Publications)
Anatoliy Tu-142 in Donald, David Ed. (2002) Tupolev
Artemyev, Anatoliy Tu-16 'Badger'- Maid of all
work in Donald, David Ed. (2002) Tupolev
Belyakov, R.A. and Marmain, J (1991) MiG
1939-1989 (Docavia 33)
Bedretdinov, Ildar (2002) The
Attack Aircraft Su-25 and its Derivatives
(1996, 1997) Lotnictwo Wojskowe Rosji (3 Vols)
Piotr Tu-95 in Donald, David Ed. (2002) Tupolev
Butowski, Piotr, (1993) Su-25, Su-34 (Monografie
Butowski, Piotr, Pankov, V. & Ponomariev, V
(1994) Su-15 Flagon (Monografie Lotnicze 14)
David & Lake, John ed. Encyclopedia of World Military
Fomin, Andrei (2000) Su-27 Flanker
Gordon, Yefim (1997) Su-15 (Prezeglad Konstrukcji
Gordon, Yefim (1997) MiG-25 Foxbat and
MiG-31 Foxhound (Aerofax)
Gordon, Yefim (1999) MiG-29
Gordon, Yefim (1999) Su-27
Gordon, Yefim (2001) Sukhoi S-37 and Mikoyan MFI
(Red Star Volume 1)
Gordon, Yefim (2003) Tupolev Tu-160
Blackjack (Red Star Volume 9)
Gordon, Yefim (2004)
Sukhoi Interceptors (Red Star Volume 16)
Gunston, Bill &
Gordon, Yefim (1997) MiG Aircraft Since 1937
(1997) How to Fly and Fight in the Mikoyan MiG-29 Fulcrum
Linn, Don and Spering, Don (1993) MiG-21 in Action
Sentrowski, R. and Piotrowski, C.
(1992) Su-27 (Lock-on 17)
Stapfer, Hans-Heiri (1990)
MiG-23/27 Flogger In Action (Squadron-Signal 101)
Hans-Heiri (1990) MiG-29 Fulcrum in Action (Squadron-Signal
Stapfer, Hans-Heiri (1992) MiG-17 Fresco in Action
Stapfer, Hans-Heiri (1994) MiG-19
Farmer in Action (Squadron-Signal 136)
Zaloga, Steven J.
Tu-22 'Blinder' and Tu-22M 'Backfire in Donald, David
Ed.(2002) Tupolev Bombers
Zoltan, Buza (1993)
MiG-29 (Lock On 762)
Zoltan, Buza (1994) Su-22M3 (Lock
Russia's Arms Catalogs
Promotional materials from NIIP, Phazotron and
Various Janes publications
World Air Power
International Air Power Review
Air Forces Monthly
of the Native Land [in Russian]
Aviation and Time [in
8TK pod is semi-recessed under
the MiG-31's nose
Semi-retractable IRST of MiG-31. Field of view of sensor is ±60°
azimuth, +6/-13° elevation. Range is about 50 km against a tail-on
aspect target in military power.
TV reconnaissance system, fitted to SU-24MR, covers a strip of
ground equal to 9 times the height of the aircraft. The picture can
be transmitted back to the ground station using the VPS-1 radio
OKB: Phazotron NIIR
Alba-F is a maritime radar designed to upgrade the Ka-27/28,
giving Kh-35 compatibility. It is also intended for SAR
applications. The Alba-F radar is designed for surface surveillance
of both the land and sea. Whatever the sea state, the all-weather
day/night system performs the following tasks:
- Circular coverage area, with a scan radius 250 km detecting
all types of maritime targets including small ones (life boats,
- Coastline mapping, quality image of the coastal terrain within
the specified angular domain;
- Identifying friend or foe
- Tracking 10 targets simultaneously and determining their
precise position within the all-round coverage area
- determining the positions of meteorological phenomena; -
detecting dangerous turbulent zones - conducting search and rescue
operation in adverse weather.
The Alba-F coherent-pulse X-band radar is a multimode system
featuring high resolution and pulse-to-pulse carrier frequency
tuning. The radar boasts a 20-m accuracy in range by virtue of
compound signals with large bandwidth duration products. The Angular
accuracy is 20 angular minutes owing to the monopulse
The Alba-F's can detect large ships with a radar cross section
(RCS) of 3,000 sq m at a distance of 250 km in sea state 5; 550 sq m
RCS medium ships at a range of 50 km; and 1sq m RCS small craft at
30 km. The radar can provide coastal area mapping with 10-m
OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP
A twin-antenna design, Almaz was designed to provide radar
beamriding guidance to K-6/-7 AAMs.
Almaz-3 was intended for Sukhoi T-3
Almaz-7 an improved version for the PT-7 version
of the T-3. Neither version entered service.
OKB: NPO Almaz
Mast-mounted radar for Ka-50N and Mi-28N. Current status unknown.
OKB: MKB "Raduga"
Datalink pod for Kh-59 for MiG-27K. Integration work had not been
completed when the MiG-27K's were removed from service.
OKB: MKB "Raduga"
Datalink pod for Kh-59, Kh-59M, used on Su-24, Su-30. Also known
Guides missile to the target area, transmits targeting data and
target acquisition. Includes data recorder.
- length: 4m
- diameter: 0.450 m
- weight: 260 kg
Command link pod for R-40TD, replaces one forward R-33 on
Arbalet / FH-01
OKB: Phazotron NIIR
Centimetric mast-mounted part of
A family of radars for helicopters. Multimode radar derived from
Kopyo, with air-to-air and air-to-surface modes. An extended range
version with enhanced power transmitter and maritime modes was
developed for Ka-27 (see Alba-F).
Works in millimetric and centimetric wave bands, with separate
Mast mount on Ka-50
Arbalet-M, Arbalet 52
More capable version of Arbalet, using Baguet series processor.
Designed for the Ka-52.
- Data processor: Ts181F
- Signal processor: Baget-55-04.01
- MTBF: 150 h
- Total weight: 140kg
Components of the Arbalet radar
- Various mapping modes
- Moving Target Selection of ground and air targets
- Determination of priority of objects
- Determination of terrain contours and obstacle detection
during low-altitude flight
- Missile approach warning
- Support/cueing of EO targetting systems
- Detection of dangerous weather formations
- Navigation systems update/correction
- Missile and rocket control
- Target type classification (in conjunction with IFF)
- Azimuth coverage: 120°
- Mapping range: 32 km
- Range of detection of ground target: bridge: 25 km, tank: 12
- Measurement precision: azimuth: 12 min, elevation: 17 min,
distance: 20 m
- Range of detection of ground-based obstacles and terrain
detection/avoidance- Electricity cables: 0.4 km, 10° sloping
terrain: 1.5 km
- Tracks 20 targets at once
- Search limits, azimuth: 360°, elevation ±30°
- Detection range for Attack aircraft: 15 km, Stinger missile: 5
- Tracking limits, azimuth: ±60°, elevation: ±30°
- Tracks up to 20 targets
NATO "Bee Hind"
PRS-1 Argon is the ranging tail radar of
PRS-3 Argon-2 is the ranging tail radar of
Avtomat-2 RWR fitted to later Tu-22 models,
detects fighter aircraft radars
Avtomat-3 RWR fitted to later Tu-22 models,
detects ground radars
SPS-61, SPS-62, SPS-63 Azaliya were fitted to
one variant of Tu-16E alongside SPS-6 Los
SPS-64, SPS-65, SPS-66 Azaliya were fitted to
another variant of Tu-16E alongside SPS-5 Fasol
SPS-61R, SPS-63R Azaliya centimetric noise
jammers were also used on the K-10SP ECM drone. In tests against
Soviet warships, they neutralised radars in the appropriate bands at
distances of 130-140km.
SPS-63 / SPS-66 / SPS-68 were fitted to the
Mi-8PPA ECM version
Mi-8PPA jamming antennas
Mi-8PPA control panel
Fitted to the Il-38 ASW aircraft. Range is 280km against a large
aircraft carrier-sized target.
Berkut-95 fitted to early Tu-142.
Beryoza / SPO-15 / L006
OKB: Omsk Central Design Bureau of Automation
Beryoza (this model has full
Hybrid analogue/digital radar warning receiver. Sucessor to the
Specifications were agreed upon in 1969, project was launched in
1970. Entered service in the late 70s.
SPO-15 is comprised of the following components:
forward azimuth antennae
Long range antennae
SPO-15 cockpit display from a
The Su-24 system has full 360° coverage while all other aircraft
have a simpler system with full coverage in the front 180° and
simple "left or right" detection in the rear sector.
The outer yellow lights represent the azimuth angle of the most
threatening target. The light will remain lit for 8-12 seconds, so a
scan rate less than this will result in a permanently lit light. The
inner green dots show all other targets. The lights will indicate
the approximate direction. If the emitter lies in a direction
between two lights both adjacent lights will light up. The six
lights across the bottom represents 6 target types which will show
the radar type of the most threatening target. The inner ring of
yellow indicators light up successively to show the strength of the
received signal. As well as the visual indicator, a low pitched
sound with similar characteristics to the detected radar signal will
If the hostile radar switches to tracking (STT) the red circle
will flash and a continuous high pitched audio tone will sound.
When a SAM launch is detected a continuous variable pitch sound
will be given.
The Beryoza is claimed to be capable of detecting enemy airborne
radars at 120% of the distance within which the enemy fighter can
launch a missile.
Radars operating in TWS mode cannot be distinguished from search
The priority target is simply detirmined by target type- one type
is always considered more dangerous than another, regardless of
signal strength or other factors.
Bands covered: 4.45-10.35GHz
Direction finding: ±10°
Bandwidth capability: 20Khz
- SPO-15 (L006)
- SPO-15S Scans frequencies from 4.75 to 10.7 GHz.
- SPO-15LM (L006LM)
- SPO-15LM (L006LM/101) Downgraded version for export.
- SPO-15LM (L006LM/108) on MiG-29SE export version.
Mi-8MTPB with Bizon ECM
ECM system fitted to Mi-8MTPB. Mi-8MTPB is an ECM (radar and
communications jammer) and COMINT (communications intelligence)
helicopter, with three jamming systems operating in D/F band range
over a 30° sector and 120° in other frequencies. Has a large
32-element (8x4) array antenna.
SPS-22 / SPS-33 / SPS-44 / SPS-55 Buket
A family of airborne deception radar jammers, forming the Buket
semi-automatic jamming suite fitted to the Yak28PP, Su-24MP and
An-12PP. Each designation is a separate jammer covering overlapping
segments of the radar band. The system, installed in the weapons bay
with an external "canoe" fairing, covered a wide range of
wavelengths, operated automatically and jammed several radars at
SPS-22N / SPS-33N / SPS-44N / SPS-55N Buket
specifically modified for fitting to the Tu-16PP (Aircraft
Chaika under Su-24 nose
Chaika was a crude daylight-only fixed optical sight fitted to
the original Su-24.
Command guidance system for the Kh-23 (AS-7) and Kh-25MR
Delta N internally mounted
Delta NM internally mounted, improved, probably
associated with the Kh-25MR.
Delta NG external pod
Delta NG2 external pod, improved, probably
associated with the Kh-25MR.
Advanced radar intended for Tsybin's RS supersonic
reconnaissance/bomber design, which was never built. Proposed at one
stage for MiG-25R.
OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP
Epaulet as displayed at
Micro-phased array radar installed in the 'Adjutant' system,
designed to provide illumination and command guidance for the
Russian-made R-27 and RVV-AE missiles for foreign aircraft or
Russian aircraft with older radars. Complete system weighs 20kg.
Antenna weighs just 5kg, and is also suggested for other
applications such as embedding in wing roots to provide greater
azimuth coverage for modern radars such as Osa.
- Scanning limits: ±45° (azimuth and elevation)
- Antenna weight: 5kg
- Energy consumption, 15W
- Time to complete a scan: 2secs
Fantasmagoria-A / L-080
Fantasmagoria-B / L-081
External pod, provides emitter location/classification data for
Kh-58 and Kh-31 ARMs. The two pods cover different bands. There may
be a third pod designated Fantasmagoria-C.
Airborne search radar noise jammer carried by the Yak-28PP,
Su-24MP, Tu22P and An-12B-I and An-12B-IS.
Filin mounted under Chaika sight
Filin is installed on early Su-24 models and provides emitter
detection, classification and guidance for the Kh-28 ARM. Individual
machines in a unit had different equipment to cover various radar
bands, which is visible in differing configurations of the
An early laser rangefinder, Fone equipped the Su-22M2 and MiG-27.
With no designation capability, its range was only 4km.
Gardeniya / SPS-200 series / L203
L203 internal version from
Gardeniya is a family of jammers including a noise jammer to
counter radars in the 10-, 20- and 70-cm wavelengths.
SPS-201 / Gardeniya-1FU / L203 The Mig-29 was always
intended to have an internal jammer, but in the event the first
production version did not have one. The 9.13 "fatback" MiG-29 was
the first MiG-29 to be fitted with such a device, the Gardeniya.
Gardeniya can emit high frequency noise, low frequency doppler noise
or flashing interference signals around the 3cm waveband. It is
effective against CW, quasi-CW and PD radar and covers an area of
±60° azimuth, ±30° elevation. Unit weighs 70-73kg. Links to existing
Beryoza RHAWS via L138 communication module. Also fitted to the
MiG-29K and M, where it was part of an integrated EW suite including
the Pastel RHAWS. Claimed to have similar performance to that of
such Western systems as the ALQ-135.
Gardeniya-1FUE / L203BE is the export version.
MSP-410 Omul / Gardeniya RF
Pod mounted jammer in the Gardeniya family.
Omul on Su-25TM
"Omul" pod displayed at MAKS
Covers ±120° in azimuth, ±60° in elevation.
Geran is an second generation active jammer, which can be
internally or pod mounted.
SPS-161 (L101) Geran-F installed internally on the Su-24,
possibly pod mounted on Su-22M4.
SPS-162 (L102) is used on later
Su-24s. Able to jam frequencies from 6 to 12GHz with 100 kW power
A Geran series jammer is also used on the
Grad / SRD-3
A reverse-engineered copy of the US AN/APG-30 ranging radar, Grad
was fitted on the MiG-19.
Groza / OPB-15T
|OBP-15T optical bombsight on Tu-22M3
OBP-15T optical bombsight on
Tu-160 does not look identical
OKB: Phazotron NIIR
Originally designed for the Tu-128-100 interceptor in the mid
sixties, and also the MiG-25MP, Groza-100 was supposed to have a
search range of 200-250km, tracking range of 150-170km, and a
missile launch range of 90-100km with the K-100 missile. Largely a
product of wishful thinking, it led to the equally implausible Smerch-100
Igla SLAR is housed in the
container under the Il-20
Phased array SLAR fitted to Il-20- the first airborne phased
array radar in the USSR.
ECM system fitted to Mi-8MTI
Initsiativa Radar fitted to the Yak-28L,
Initsiativa-2 Radar fitted to the Yak-28I
Initsiativa-2K Radar fitted to Ka-25B
Initsiativa-2M Radar fitted to Mil-14PL. Range
NATO "Scan Fix, Scan Odd"
OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP
Chief Designer V. V. Tikhomirov
Izumrud installation on the
Izumrud, developed at NII-17 (Research Institute No. 17) by a
team led by V. Tikhomirov, was adopted in 1952 for use on MiG-15 and
MiG-17 fighters. It used two separate antennae for search and
tracking. Tracking was automatic, as opposed to more complex,
manual, competing radar designs. Using centrimetric wavelengths, its
search limits were ±60° azimuth, +26° /-14° elevation with each
sweep taking 1.33 seconds. Maximum range for a 16 sq m RCS target
was only 12 km.
The radar displayed on the ASP-3N gunsight, with a target
displayed as a short line, with length depending on size and range.
Within 2km, the radar could switch to tracking mode, which had a
7° viewing cone. Target azimuth was measured accurate to 1° and
range to 150m.
RP-1 Izumrud was used on the MiG-17P.
Search range was 11-12km, 2km tracking range for a Tu-4. Used with
RP-1U Izumrud was compatible the K-5/RS-1U AAM.
RP-5 Izumrud-5 tracking range increased to
3.5-4km, more resistant to ECM. Fitted to MiG-17PFs produced from
December 1955 and the MiG-19P.
RP-2U Izumrud-2 was designed for use with
upgraded K-5M/RS-2US missiles (designed for use with both RP-2U and
RP-9U radars) and fitted to the upgraded MiG-17PFU. Tracking range
3.5-4km. Search limits were ±60° azimuth, +26/-13° in elevation.
Also fitted to MiG-19PM.
Kaira-1 on MiG-27K (both
Kaira-1 An improved electro-optical sensor used on the
Kaira comprises a TV camera in the upper aperture which has an
enhanced contrast system to give low light capability, increasing
the range in poor visibility conditions. Below this, in the lower
aperture, is a second TV camera co-located with a second generation
laser rangefinder/designator. The pilot designates the target, which
is then tracked using correlation techniques. It is also possible to
attack non-visible targets whose location is known in advance and
programmed into the computer.
Laser range is typically 7-8km. Stabilised scanning, with limits
of ±20° in azimuth, +6 to -130° in elevation. Displays on an IT-23T
monochrome CRT display in the cockpit.
Unlike Klen it allowed use of both laser guided missiles and
laser guided bombs.
Kaira proved a very troublesome system. It was severely
overweight, which led to the removal of the scabbed-on cockpit
armour, but even this didn't entirely rectify the situation.
Reliability was initially poor, and it was considered too difficult
to use for the average pilot. At one stage MiG-27Ks were lined up at
the factory as the customer refused to accept delivery until the
problems were resolved. The problems were largely ironed out, but
the MiG-27K was reserved for experienced pilots who could master the
complex task of flying and target location/designation
simultaneously. The Su-24M was much easier in this respect as it had
separate pilot and navigator.
Kaira-24M has greater coverage
in elevation than Kaira-1
Kaira-24M is fitted to the Su-24M, and is very similar to
Kaira-1. It was initially intended to place it in the nose, where
the Su-24 Chaika system had been, but was relocated to an belly
location near the centre of gravity. This decreased the effect of
oscillations and bending on the accuracy of the system.
Kaira-24 has a field of view of +/-35° in azimuth and +6°/-160°
in elevation. Maximum range of laser ranging is 12km.
Attempts to integrate Kaira on the Su-17M4 failed.
Thought to be an Su-24 Kaira
ECM system tested on Su-27IB prototype, probably podded. Provides
jamming against advanced SAMs such as S-300.
Khinzhal-S millimeter-wave (8mm) imaging radar
intended for use on the Su-25TM in an external pod. Range 5-7 km
(fixed target, 10 sq m RCS) 25-30km (fixed target, 100 sq m RCS)
15-20km (moving target). Weight 150kg, power consumption 3.5kW.
Khinzhal-V version for helicopter mounting,
suggested for Ka-50 and Mi-28.
Leninetz experienced enormous problems with radar development of
the Khinzhal, which have not been solved to date. Currently thought
to be abandoned.
Khishnik / B004
Chief Designer: M. Gramagin
B004 Phased array antenna
The B004 has been under development since 1987, when Sukhoi
completed the conceptual design of the Su-34. It has been designed
as part of a integrated avionics subsystem for the Su-34. A suite of
digital computers process and combine data inputs from sensors such
as front and rear radar, thermal imaging, TV, data link, RHAWS and
missile warning systems, and present a fused coherent set of
information symbolically on colour LCD panels to the weapons systems
operator. The system is highly automated, able to deploy
countermeasures, follow terrain in low level flight, even coordinate
flight paths within a formation. The suite is modular in design,
fault tolerant with redundancy at hardware and software levels. The
B004 radar antenna is the main radar system, capable of tracking
both airborne and surface targets as well as providing navigation
and mapping information. In the latter mode it performs ground
mapping, automatic terrain following and terrain avoidance
functions. In air-to-air mode, target detection capability is said
to extend out to between 200 and 250km depending upon target size.
The B004 operates in the 3cm wavelength. It features up to 15kw peak
power output, and ±60° coverage in azimuth and elevation. The radar
antenna alone weighs 150kg. The radar currently performs all
required functions, less the SAR mode, which is to be developed
later through software changes. It has a ground-mapping range of 150
km, a range of 75 km in Doppler-beam-sharpening mode, and can track
small ground targets at a range of 30 km. It can also detect air
targets of fighter size out to 90 km.
B004 installed on an Su-34
Like Kinzhal, it may have hit difficulties. Sukhoi are reportedly
looking at alternative Phazotron radars. However, the PAK-FA
avionics suite has been entrusted to the same companies, and uses
Imaging infrared (FLIR) pod for SU-25TM, operating in 8-14 micron
band. Sukhoi tested it on the T-8TM1 prototype from 1991, and
cancelled it in late 1994, reportedly unhappy with both range and
Chief Designer: M. P. Khorikov
Klen-PS on bench
Klen-PS installed on Su-25
Ken-PS fitted to the Su--22M3/M4, Su-25. In
production since 1977.
PRF in rangefinding mode: 1Hz
illumination mode: 10Hz
Maximum measurable range: 5km
±12° azimuth, -30 to +6 elevation
Klen-PM fitted to MiG-27M, MiG-27D.
A second generation laser rangefinder/designator that was mounted
on the MiG-27M, in preference to the Kaira of
the MiG-27K which was deemed too expensive for widespread
deployment. Unlike Kaira it
did not feature a TV channel, meaning that the target had to be
acquired visually and designated by the pilot on his HUD. Maximum
range of laser rangefinding is 10km.
Downwards elevation was limited to -35° , which limited armament
to laser guided missiles only.
SPS- 4M Klyukva jammer used on some dedicated
Tu-16 ECM variants
KOLS / Izdeliye 13Sh / OEPS-29
OKB: NPO Geophyizika
OEPS-29 from the MiG-29
Fitted to the MiG-29A, KOLS is a combined IRST/LR device. All
aspect device. Acquires targets independently, or with data
input from the radar. Can detect a non-afterburning fighter head-on
at a range of 12-18km. The collimated laser can provide ranging data
from 200-6500m accurate to 3m. Scanning limits are ±30° azimuth,
Chart showing KOLS operational
modes from MiG-29 combat employment manual
Operates in several scanning modes. In large FOV mode scanning is
±30° azimuth, +30°/15° elevation. In small FOV mode scanning limits
are ±30° azimuth and ±15° elevation. Close combat mode scans +16° to
-14° by 4°. Lock-on mode scans 6° x 4°. Target tracking rate is up
KOLS is able to reject flares only if the combined signature of
the flares is less than the target.
Targets are displayed on the same display as the
The Komar radar was a radar for the early MiG-29 designs, when it
was being considered as an F-16A equivalent- meaning no BVR
capability but some air-to-ground modes. It was shelved when it was
decided that the MiG-29 would need BVR capability, though the name
was later used for some versions of the similar Kopyo radar.
OKB: Phazotron NIIR
Kopyo MiG-21 installation
Kopyo was the first private venture radar by Phazotron. Drawing
on technology developed for the Zhuk radar, Phazotron produced Kopyo
as a lighter, smaller radar suitable for
equipping trainers and light attack aircraft as well as for
upgrading older aircraft like the MiG-21. It operates in X band with
16 distinct frequencies. It uses both high PRF and medium PRF modes
for optimum detection and tracking at all aspects. Kopyo weighs
120kg, occupies 250dm3, with a 500mm
antenna that achieves 29dB gain. Tracking limits of the radar are
±40°. Kopyo has 2 recievers (noise factor 4dB), and transmits with a
peak power of 5kw, 1kw average. It uses an MPS data processor, and a
TS175 digital computer. Its MTBF is 120 hours.
Kopyo on the MiG-21-93 prototype
Kopyo has an air-to-air track-while-scan ("SNP") mode, it tracks
8 targets, and engages 2 simultaneously. The simultaneous engagement
capability has been demonstrated.
It retains a single target track mode. Search range in lookup is
57km headon and 30 km in pursuit, with a tracking range of 45km,
against a 3 sq m RCS target. Lookdown mode ranges are the same in
headon but slightly reduced in pursuit mode (20km).
It has vertical scan, automatic HUD scan (± 14°), optical (pilot
selected target on HUD) and helmet close combat modes.
Air-to-surface operating modes are comprehensive, something
Phazotron only introduced in the current crop of radar designs.
There are three mapping modes; low resolution (real beam) at ;
medium resolution (Doppler beam sharpening, 10:1); high resolution
(synthetic aperture, 100:1). Resolution in low res at 80km is
300x300m, in medum res at 60km is 30x30m, and high res at 60km is
Range against a large ship is 200km, a railroad bridge is 100km,
a missile boat 80km and a moving group of tanks 20km.
Allows detection of moving ground targets, sea surface search,
map freezing and interfaces with the Kh-31A antiship missile for
Komar was a version of Kopyo with ±60° azimuth
scan limits for the Su-22.
Kopyo-25 / N027 External pod version of Kopyo
designed for Su-25TM.
Kopyo-25 prototype pod on
Kopyo-29 Proposed version of the Kopyo for quick
and cheap upgrading of Indian MiG-29 airframes.
Kopyo-M largely identical to Kopyo, but with a TS501F
modern reprogrammable data processor and a TS181F digital computer.
Weight is slightly reduced, to 90kg, volume also reduced to 230dm3,
and reliability increased to 200h MTBF due to more modern
electronics. The improved data processing capability boosts search
range to 75km and tracking range to 56km. Kopyo-M has raid
assessment capability, a new wide angle close combat mode, tracks
10-12 and engages 4 in TWS mode, and can track 4 ground targets
simultaneously. SAR mode resolution is improved to 3m x 3m.
Kopyo-F (was Pharaon)
Kopyo-F is the next-generation evolution of the Kopyo radar.
Weighing just 75kg including its phased array antenna, Kopyo-F is
intended for retrofitting to older aircraft, equipping light combat
aircraft and may be installed in the tail of new Sukhoi Su-27 family
aircraft for detection, tracking and target aquisition of pursuing
targets. The radar uses a non-equidistant rather than the
traditional linear radar field distribution, which allows a fivefold
radar cost reduction over a conventional phased array while
retaining good radiating characteristics. Kopyo-F features increased
jamming resistance, and covert operation modes. A coherent TWT
transmitter is used, with three basic types available, 1000w, 400w,
150w, depending on host aircraft. Using both programmable data and
signal processors the available processing power of 900mflops is
only currently operating at half capacity, giving plenty of room for
future improvements and guaranteeing no overload of the system when
tracking multiple targets.
Power required: 1.8kVA AC, 0.25
Antenna: 0.44m diameter, ±70° coverage in azimuth and
elevation. 28dB antenna gain.
X band (16 distinct
3 receivers, 2dB noise factor
3kW peak power
output, 0.3kW average
- Lookup range 75km head-on, 30km pursuit
- Lookdown range 70km head-on, 20km pursuit
- 20 targets tracked, 4 engaged simultaneously.
- Destroyer detected at 200km, missile boat 100km, railroad
bridge 80km, moving group of tanks 20km
- ground mapping modes
- Low resolution : 80km (300m by 300m)
- Medium resolution: 60km (30 by 30m)
- High resolution: 60km (10 by 5m)
Pharaon-M was a further developed version which uses the
latest digital technology to reduce weight to 45kg, albeit at
greater financial cost.
Kopyo-F and Pharaon-M have been proposed as a tail radar for
Su-27IB and Su-35.
Experimental early air intercept radar derived from
fitted to the I-320 and MiG-17F. It was unreliable, difficult to
use, and did not enter production.
Korshun was designed for oversea search and detection of
submarines and fitted to the Tu-142.
Korshun-K was introduced on the Tu-142MK.
Korshun-KN-N is an improved version of the Korshun radar
introduced in 1985 on the Tu-142M. It had its old TsVM-264 computer
replaced with a newer 263 unit, accompanied by extensive software
A further improved derivative of the Orel-D58, intended for the
Su-15T but replaced by Taifun
primarily at the insistence of the customer.
Kripton / PRS-4
NATO "Box Tail"
Tail radar installed on Tu-95KD onward, and Tu-22M.
PRS-4KM fitted to Tu-22M3
ELINT system of MiG-25RBK. Near-realtime datalink.
Kurs-N, Kurs-NM RWR and target handoff to
Kh-22MP ARM for Tu-22MP, Tu-95K-22
ELINT system fitted to the Il-20. This system is capable of
emitter location, radio frequency and power measurement as well as
determining pulse duration and transmission cycles.
Kvant (1) / SRD-5
NATO "High Fix"
Ranging radar only, used on MiG-21, Su-17.
SRD-5 MiG-21F (early production)
SRD-5M MiG-21F-13 (standard production),
OKB: NPO Vega-M
Kvant Long-range AEW&C radar designed for
the An-71 and Yak-44 carrier-borne AWACS aircraft. Tracked 120
targets at once, with a range of 200km against a 2 sq m RCS target.
Against a large aircraft, range was 350-370km. A wideband UHF
coherent pulse radar, Kvant rotated at 10rpm, allowing 360° coverage
and 30,000m elevation.
Kvant-M was an improved version of the Kvant, which
Yakovlev intended to use on the production Yak-44. Due mainly to
improvements in signal processing it had 30-50% better performance
than the basic Kvant radar, including major increases in the number
of simultaneous targets tracked, to 200-300.
L166BIA Airbome fixed-source infrared jammer.
The L166BlA comprises a 365 x 463-mm transmitter- radiator unit
which weighs "no more than 20 kg" (weight and size of the "lantern"
varies according to the needs of the particular platform the figures
quoted relate to the Mi-8 application) and a 95 x 70 x 45-mm,
0.125kg cockpit control box. The L166BIA is quoted as offering
protection against a range of threat missiles such as the
Sidewinder, IR Falcon, Mica, Strela 2M, Redeye and Chaparral.
Specified system life is 1,200hr with a "time between failure" value
of 250 hr. Infrared source life is noted as 50 hr.
Sukhogruz on the Su-25T
L166SI Sukhogruz 6,000W Caesium lamp active IR
jammer mounted on Su-25T. Warm-up period 5 min. Modulation
frequencies: 8 channels between 700-1,700Hz at 100-150Hz separation.
Weight is 28 kg (transmitter), 3.5kg (control unit).
L166V-11E Ispanka microwave IR jammer on Mi-24.
Proved useless against modern MANPADS in Chechnya.
L175V / KS418
Intended to equip a jamming variant of the Su-34, the L175V is a
high power stand-off jammer carried in under-wing pods. An export
version for Su-24MK has been developed. KS418 designation suggests
connection to MSP-418K.
Airborne EW suite (including the Los, Mimoza and Fasol radar
jammers) fitted to the Su-24MP Fencer-F EW aircraft.
NATO "Flap Jack"
OKB: NPO Vega
Liana radar on the Tu-126
The Liana radar was designed in 1959 as an AEW radar to equip the
Tu-126 aircraft. Initially intended to detect air targets at high
altitude, on the borders of USSR airspace, and detect naval targets.
It was based on an existing ground radar system- the P-30 early
warning radar. It was a 2D system only, with no measurement of
target altitude. Antenna rotated at a constant 10rpm in azimuth. The
system became operational in 1965 but only 8 were built. In practise
Liana was close to useless. It had no lookdown capability, so the
switch by NATO to low level penetration made it fairly irrelevant.
The naval detection mission was filled by dedicated Tu-95RTs
It was so unreliable that technicians had to be carried on every
flight to keep it working through the inevitable breakdowns. While
the USSR had intended the Tu-126 to be a command and control centre,
with datalinks allowing automated control of Tu-128P interceptors,
this never worked and any intercepts had to be guided by voice
commands over radio.
Liana could detect small, MiG-21 size fighters at 100km. Large
bombers could be detected at 200-300km, while large warships could
be detected out to 400km.
Airborne active radar missile approach warner fitted to platforms
such as the Mi-24 Hind, Ka-29 Helix and Su-25 Frogfoot. Mi-24
installation only covered 180° , which lead to several losses, and
the Ka-29 used two sensors to give 360° coverage.
IR Jammer for Mi-24. Useful against older MANPADS but useless
against later designs.
SPS-6 Los is a jammer equipping various
dedicated ECM aircraft like Tu-16E
Lyutik (SPS-150 series)
SPS-151/152/153 Airborne self protection jammer
fitted to the MiG25RBV and BM, Tu-22RDM, Tu-16P (from late 70s)
OKB: Azovsky Optico-mechanical Plant(?)
Su-24 Mak-UL antenna
Tu-95MS Mak-UT MAWS
IR missile approach warning sensor family
L-082 Mak-UL fitted to Su-24M
L-083 is a Mak version
L-128 is a Mak version
Mak-UF fitted to the Su-25T is a dual band IR/UV
Mak-UT fitted to the Tu-95MS
L-136 Mak-UFM latest generation IR missile
approach warning sensor for Ka-50, MiG-24VM upgrade.
M400 mockup shown at MAKS 2003
The M400 Reconnaissance System features:
- Data acquisition, visualization, and storage system
- Video data storage system
- Raduga high-altitude multi-channel (multi-band) IR
- Antrakt low-altitude electro-optical reconnaissance system
- AP-403 and AP-404 panoramic cameras
- M402 Pika SLAR plug-in module
- AK-108FM long-focus oblique photo camera plug-in module
The Su-30 aircraft equipped with M400 system provides
- Detection of ground installations and strike confirmation in
any weather conditions, day or night, at low, medium and high
altitude without entering the range of enemy air defenses using
radar, IR and visual sensors
- Integrated targeting information acquisition [for attack
Visualization and on-board logging of
reconnaissance data and its real-time transmission to ground
station through a high-bandwidth link
Maximum detection range without entering the range of
enemy air defenses
- Photo reconnaissance - over 70 km
- Radar - over 100 km
- Side-looking radar – 2 meters
- Visual sensor – 0.3 meters
- IR sensor – 0.3 meters
- Long-focus photo camera – 0.4 meters
Chief Designer: K K Chizhikov
Mercury entered development in 1982 as the first airborne
night-vision device in the USSR.
Mercuriy has two lenses for wide
and narrow FOV
Low-light-level TV camera developed for various platforms
including the Ka-50.
Mercuriy pod on SU-25TM
A pod version was developed for the Su-25T. Wide and narrow (5.5
x 7.3 ° ) field of view from two separate lenses as seen above.
Range was 10km in daylight, 3km at night against a tank size
target. A bridge could be detected at 6-8km, a barge at 10-12km at
night. No stabilisation.
It could be used in conjunction with the Prichal laser system in
active illumination mode, which increased detection range to 4-5km
for a tank.
Sukhoi were reportedly not happy with performance.
The Mercuriy was also intended to equip the Ka-50, but Kamov also
found its performance lacking. It was really useful only for night
flying, not for fighting.
Mercuriy fitted to Ka-50
External pod for Kh-28 emitter location guidance
Computer controlled ECM system fitted to Tu-95MS, linking Pastel
RWR, Geran series jammer, Mak MAWS, APP-50 chaff/flare
Airborne EW suite fitted to the Tu-22MP Backfire-C EW
Modulyatsiya was fitted to the Tu-16 Yolka.
OKB: Phazotron NIIR
Moskit is a small radar, originally designed for trainer
and light fighter aircraft. Weighing just 70kg, Moskit-1 has a
search range of 45km, tracking range of 30km, detects simultaneously
up to 12 targets, selects the most dangerous 4 of them, tracks and
engages them. It has a +30° detection / track angle in azimuth and
two or four bars in elevation. It works in the X band.
Air to air modes available include look-up, look-down, single
target track, and air combat. Air to ground modes include fixed and
moving land and sea target tracking and designation.
Moskit-23 for MiG-23 upgrades
Moskit-23 is an updated Moskit radar. The Moskit-23 radar
is equipped with a TS-600 signal/data processor. Improved hardware
and software allows increase in the search range of the radar for a
fighter to 90km, tracking range to 60km. Moskit-23 provides ground
mapping modes, and launching of the Kh-31A active radar missiles
against naval targets from a distance of up to 100 kilometres.
Guided bombs can also be used. Moskit-23 can detect and track
hovering helicopters. It is designed for a proposed MiG-23 upgrade.
It detects simultaneously 10 to 12 targets, selects the most
dangerous 4 of them, tracks and engages them. Weight is
A lightweight, high performance jammer for the Su-25TM using DRFM
(Digital RF Memory) and DSP technology. Tested from 1998 on the
T-8TM-4 prototype. Features a modular open architecture
It covers the G-J-band frequency range. Modes available include
noise, range gate pulloff, velocity gate pulloff, combined
range/velocity gate pulloff, angle, terrain bounce, programmed
The pod's weight was supposed to be 80kg, with 120° azimuth, 60°
Probably the same as MSP-418K,
or closely related.
MSP-418K on MiG-29SMT
demonstrator at MAKS 2003
A lightweight, high performance jammer for the MiG-29 using DRFM
(Digital RF Memory) technology. Possibly related to the older MSP-410
pod. It covers the G-J-band (4-18 GHz?) range. The pod's weight is
150kg, dimensions are 230 x 225 x 3,800mm. 120° azimuth, 60°
N001 / Myech / RPLK-27
NATO "Slot Back"
OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP
Chief designer: V K Grishin
N001 looks very similar to the
MiG-29's N019 radar
The N001 radar for the Su-27 was designed by Viktor Grishin.
Pushing the state of the art for the USSR, the original design,
known as Myech, was supposed to draw heavily on technologies
developed for the experimental Soyuz radar program led by NPO Istok.
It was intended to have a great deal of commonality with the
MiG-29's N019 Rubin
N001 internals from factory
Development was difficult. Originally intended to significantly
outperform the AN/APG-63 of the F-15, with a 200km detection range,
in reality this goal proved impossible for NIIP to achieve. It was
intended to use an all new design antenna, featuring electronic
scanning in elevation and mechanical scanning in azimuth. This would
give excellent multitarget engagement capability, and use of the
MiG-31's R-33 was envisaged. This design proved overly ambitious,
and was simply unachievable for a mass production radar given the
state of the Soviet electronics industry in the early eighties. In
May 1982, it was decided that the NIIP designed digital computer and
antenna were simply not up to scratch, nor likely to become so in
the near future.
Phazotron's N019 had
already reverted back to an improved version of the Sapfir-23ML's
twist-cassegrain antenna to replace its problematic flat-plate
antenna. It was decided therefore to use major components from the
radar, including a scaled-up copy of its twist-cassegrain antenna
and the TS100 processor. By March 1983, the redesign was complete,
though the resulting radar was nowhere near as good was intended.
Instead of 200km, detection range barely reached 140km even against
a large bomber.
Stills from NIIP video show the
In 1985 NIIP were ordered to improve its performance. Attention
and work had switched to the new N011 radar
to equip the Su-27M, and problems with N001 persisted. According to
NIIP, initial units had a MTBF of only 5 hours. Though the Su-27
entered service in 1986, its radar was not finally accepted into
service until 1991. Eventually MTBF was brought up to 200 hours.
N001 has a 1.075m antenna diameter twist-cassegrain antenna. A
pulse-doppler design operating in the 3-cm band utilising medium and
high PRFs for optimum lookdown capability, the N001 has a search
range of 80-100km against a 3 sq m RCS target in a headon
engagement, 140km against a large bomber. It can track a 3 sq m
target at 65km. In a pursuit engagement, search range for a 3 sq m
target falls to just 40km. Azimuth limits are ±60° . It can also
track ECM sources, and feed target data to the Su-27's IRST system.
The average power transmitted is 1kW (same as N019).
MTBF is 100 hours.
A radar datalink is used for updating inertially guided missiles
such as the R-27.
The Su-27K used an updated SUV-33 control system, the N001 radar
was largely unchanged but with sea optimised lookdown capability and
support for the carrier-based GCI system.
A modernised N001 radar developed for
retrofitting to in-service Su-27 (analogous to the Phazotron N019M Topaz) can track
and engage 2 targets at once using the R-77 missile.
N001VE is fitted to Chinese Su-30MKK. Uses Baguet series
BCVM-486-6 processor for additional capabilities. Basically the same
as NIIP Stage 1 package below.
NIIP N001 modernisation package
Stage 1: Provision of ground mapping modes. Existing radar
is modified with a bypass channel that allows incoming radar data to
be switched to a new all-digital processing system. When a new mode
is selected, radar data is sent to the new subsystems, but if an old
mode is selected the data is processed as before by the existing
radar hardware. Thus all old modes remain unchanged. New air to
ground modes added are very similar to those of the Zhuk radar.
Only 1 additional air-to-air mode, which gives RVV-AE
Stage 2: NIIP propose a new lightweight, optically-fed Pero phased
array antenna as a drop-in replacement for the existing cassegrain
antenna. This will substantially improve air-to-air performance, and
increase air-to-ground resolution. New modes will be added at the
same time for target identification, velocity search, and to detect
hovering helicopters. Suggested that range might reach 300km against
a large target.
Upgrade to Stage 2 is expected to cost 35% of the cost of a new
N011 / RLSU
OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP
Chief Designer: Tamerlan Bekirbayev
N011 mounted on Su-27M prototype
This radar design was initiated in the early/mid 80s for the
Su-27M program by Tamerlan Bekirbayev, drawing on experience gained
with the original, unachievable Myech design and the experimental
Soyuz program by NPO Istok.
It was not without problems, and fell victim to a decision that
all future radars should be phased-array, despite the greater cost.
NIIP drew on technology from their cancelled N014 radar
intended for the MFI to improve the N011 with a passive phased array
antenna and better signal processing.
N011 Mechanically scanned 960mm planar array
antenna, ± 85° coverage. Said to be heavier than the N001. Uses a
multimode wideband TWT transmitter with peak power output of 8 kW,
and average of 2 kW. It features a low noise UHF input amplifier,
and full digital signal processing using reprogrammable digital
computers. Tough requirements, to track 20 targets and engage 8
simultaneously over a wide area, proved impossible to achieve with a
mechanically scanned antenna. Initial versions proved able to track
13 aerial targets and engage four, which with further development
could be extended to 15 and 6 respectively. It has five
air-to-ground and four maritime modes. The maximum search range for
large air targets such as airborne early warning and control
aircraft is 400km, 140km against a head-on fighter-class target,
In an air-to-ground mode, it can acquire surface targets at
ranges of up to 200km, and undertake ground mapping, terrain-
following and terrain-avoidance missions.
Further development of the N011 is unlikely.
N011M Bars / RLSU-30MK
N011M antenna installed on
N011M Bars is an upgraded phased array antenna version of the
Under development since the early 1990s, two prototype N011M
radars were produced, of which one was flight tested in Su-27M
prototype "712". It is now in production, and is currently fitted to
Antenna diameter is 1m, antenna gain 36dB, the main sidelobe
level is -25dB, average sidelobe level is -48dB, beamwidth is 2.4°
with 12 distinct beam shapes. The antenna weighs 110kg. It is both
mechanically and electronically scanned to give increased field of
view over a fixed phased array antenna and also to allow the radar
to be tilted away when not in use, decreasing RCS. Two variants were
initially proposed, the first was both electronically and
mechanically scanned in azimuth (±30° mechanically plus ±60°
electronically, for a total coverage of ±90°) and electronically
scanned in elevation (±60°). The second was mechanically and
electronically scanned in both azimuth and elevation (±90° in both
The N011M fitted to the Su-30MKI was the first type, but in
testing the passive phased array proved unable to be electronically
steered greater than 40° without unacceptable degredation of
performance. Therefore scanning limits are reduced to ±70° (±30°
mechanically, ±40° electronically) in azimuth and ±40° in
Peak power output is 4-5kW, average power output is 1.2kW.
Ts200 PSP (Programmable Signal Processor)
Data entry speed:
Peak performance on fourier transforms of "butterfly"
type: 75 Million operations per second.
Radar control processor
Number of processors: 3
RAM (or possibly Flash memory): 16 Mb
Processor ROM: 16 Mb
Weight of complete radar system is 650kg.
Initially India were supposed to construct both programmable
signal processors (PSP) and data processors (RC) under project
"Vetrivale" to replace the original Russian components.
Unfortunately, LRDE expressed their inability to develop the system
within the envisaged time frame, especially in view of the
non-finalisation of the required technical specification by NIIP.
The project therefore reverted to the Ts200 PSP originally designed
for the Su-27M's N011. The initial radar data processor delivered
was also Russian.
The contract for the N011M radar has three stages. The initial
MK1 software was tested in 2002 and supplied with the first Su-30MKI
deliveries. NIIP were finalising the 2nd stage (MK2), still using
the Russian data processor, in October 2003, while testing on the
final (MK3) revision had also begun. MK3 incorporates the
Indian-designed Vetrivale RC (radar computer) based in the i960
architecture. Currently in 2004 MK3 is still in testing. While MK2
implements most of the modes above, full capability will only be met
with the 3rd stage radar.
The construction, the operating system and the applied ”Bars”
radar control system software support fully are compatible with
Western standards, which allows their upgrade without changing the
logic of the radar control system’s operation.
The computer technology is executed in Western military standard
form factor (Compact PCI).
A Bars' test radar is said to have detected Su-27 fighters at a
range of over 330 km, tracked several targets while volume scanning,
and correctly identified aerial targets.
Air to air modes
- Velocity Search
- Range While Search
- Detection range in headon engagements: 120-140km
- Detection range in tailchase engagements: 60km
- Track While Scan of 15 targets
- Precision Tracking up to 4 targets for engaging targets while
continuing volume search.
- Scanning zone while tracking is given as 5,500 square
degrees in one document, while another says targets can be
tracked anywhere in the 80° tracking zone of the radar while
continuing to scan. A ±40° azimuth by ±40° elevation scan area
like this suggests would be 6,400 square degrees.
- Target Illumination; generation of radio update commands for
- Track ECM source
- Raid Assessment while scan
- Target Identification while scan
- On switching on of this mode, the “Bars” radar control
system determines the type of aerial target detected through the
parameters of the signal reflected from the target. Identified
generic target types include “large target,” “medium target,”
“small target,” “group target,” transport airplane, helicopter,
and jet airplane. Upon introduction into the database of the
appropriate spectral characteristics, this mode can identify
exact aircraft types. The technique is thought to be based on on
identifying engine type from the signal modulation induced by
rotating engine compressors. 5 targets can be identified in 1
second, while the radar continues to volume scan and track other
- Several close combat modes for search, lock-on and tracking of
a single aerial target in close-in maneuvering combat.
Azimuth: ±3° or ±10°
Elevation: -15/+40° or
- Real beam mapping
- DBS mapping
- SAR mapping
- Moving ground target selection
- Measuring of ground target coordinates and tracking up to 2
- Range, a railroad bridge: 80-120km
- Range, group of tanks: 40-50km
- Best resolution in SAR mode: 10m
Anti shipping modes
- Long range detection of huge sea targets
- Sea surface scan and detection of sea targets
- Range against a destroyer sized target: 120-150km
- Moving sea target selection
- Measuring of coordinates, tracking up to 2 sea targets, moving
- Naval target ID
- Search air-to-air targets while tracking ground or sea targets
- Track one ground target while simultaneously firing at an
aerial target in long-range combat
OKB: NIIR Rassvet
Tail radar used on Su-35/37 operating at decimetric wavelengths
which is installed in the long tail boom between the tail pipes.
This radar forms part of the aircraft's defensive aids sub-systems
suite (DASS) and warns the crew of approaching threats in the rear
hemisphere as well as controlling active and passive jamming
responses to such threats. Claimed to have a range of 50km for a 3
sq m RCS fighter, or 100km for a large aircraft. Scans 60° in
azimuth and elevation.
OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP
Associated with the Mikoyan 1-42/1-44 project, the passive phased
array N014 radar project from NIIP was abandoned. Supposed to track
40 targets. Range up to 420km. Used in conjunction with the N012 tail
radar. The antenna was scanned electronically and mechanically to
increase angular coverage.
Some elements or techniques from it were applied to the N011M.
NIIP have experimented with bistatic radar techniques, which were
probably intended for N014.
N019 / Rubin / RPLK-29 / S-29 / Sapfir-29
NATO: "Slot Back"
OKB: Phazotron NIIR
Based on the work undertaken by NPO Istok on the experimental
Soyuz radar program, Phazotron NIIR were tasked in the mid 70s with
producing a modern radar for the MiG-29. Originally intended to have
a planar array antenna and digital signal processing, and a range of
at least 100km against a fighter target, it soon became clear that
this would not be achievable, at least not in a radar that would fit
in the MiG-29's nose. Phazotron NIIR reverted to a version of the
twist cassegrain antenna used successfully on the Sapfir-23ML, and
analogue signal processor technologies similar to their earlier
designs, with a NII Argon- designed Ts100 digital computer.
N019 block diagram
The N019 radar weighs around 385kg in total. It is a
pulse-doppler radar operating in X band around 3cm wavelength. It
uses three basic operating regimes. High PRF radar mode for optimal
detection of closing targets, medium PRF mode for optimal detection
of receding targets, and an interleaved high/medium PRF mode for all
aspect detection. It uses a guard channel for sidelobe suppression.
SARH Illumination and main channels use different frequencies within
the X band, and are multiplexed in time. Individual aircraft can be
preset on the ground to different frequencies to avoid mutual
interference during group operations.
Scanning cycle times are 2.5-5 seconds depending on mode.
Beam width is 3.5º, which determines the minimum separation
of two targets in azimuth.
The radar beam is stabilised up
to 120º in roll and +40º/-30º in pitch.
N019 is a hybrid analogue/digital design, with an NII Argon Ts100
digital processing unit. The Ts100 processor can achieve 170,000
operations per second, has 8K RAM and 136k ROM, and is built using
medium scale integration ICs.
N019 Ts100 processor
It is based on the proprietary POISK architecture developed at
NII Argon, which allows adapting of the instruction set to control
system functions, by expanding the basic instruction set with
microcodes inherent in specific tasks. Compared to machines using
the same elements but a generic instruction set (e.g. the ES EVM
architecture Argon-15A of the MiG-31) processing capability was
enhanced by 1.5 to 2.5 times and the code 3 to 5 times more compact,
making Ts100 much cheaper to produce. The Ts100 computer weighs 32
N019 Microwave receiver
Radar Modes (Description from N-019EB export variant manual)
Radar scan limits in azimuth: ±65º
Radar scan limits in
elevation: +56º, -36º
Mode "V" (Vstryehchya) : Encounter
Encounter mode is the main search mode used in interception,
as it gives the longest detection ranges and the least false
It uses a High PRF mode which can detect closing
targets only in the velocity range of 230 - 2500km/h at altitudes
from 30m to 23,000m. The display is calibrated to a maximum range of
Target can be up to 10,000m above or 6,000m below the
host aircraft's own altitude.
A typical 3 sq m RCS fighter
target can be detected at 50-70 km and tracked at 40-60 km. If the
target is flying below 3,000m reduces the detection range to 40-70
km and tracking range to 30-60km.
Two basic scan patterns
When the system is under direct GCI
control via datalink, a 6 bar elevation raster scan is used. This
scan covers a sector of 40° in azimuth at ranges up to 30km, 30° at
ranges of 30-55 km, and 20° above 55km within the scan limits given
above. The distance to target and other useful information is
supplied by GCI command, and the direction of the scan is
automatically cued by CGI command towards the desired target.
When the system is not under direct GCI
control via datalink, a 4 bar raster scan mode is used to acquire a
target manually. This mode scans a constant 50° in azimuth, with the
pilot controlling the direction of the scan. It is expected that the
rough direction to the target will be given by ground control via
There is no scan pattern for full azimuth range scanning. The
130º scan area is divided into 3 sectors. Left sector is -65º to
-15º, centre sector covers -25º to +25º, right sector from +15º to
+65º, giving overlapping coverage of the full 130º scan limits.
Individual targets can be resolved providing they are separated in
azimuth and 5-6km in range. Range measuring error of a single target
can be as high as 8km, which should be recalled when comparing
measured target range with that supplied by GCI controller.
Minimum measurable range in this mode is 5km.
and transition to tracking mode takes 2 to 7 seconds in Encounter
Note that in Encounter mode, a target that changes
direction to a tail-on engagement may be be lost even when in
tracking mode, if it is no longer closing.
Mode "D" (Dogon):
A medium PRF mode usable for both headon
and tailchase engagements. In practise it is used only when
necessary, as it is prone to displaying false targets from ground
clutter especially at low altitudes. Marsh land, marshy forests and
flood plains give greatest clutter problems. When multiple false
returns are present, the pilot should compare visible targets with
the calculated target range supplied by datalink from GCI controller
to determine the correct target.
Display is calibrated to a
maximum range of 50km.
Detects targets from 30 m to 23,000 m
altitude receding at speeds of 210 - 2200 km/h.
be up to 10,000m above or 6,000m below.
Range against a
typical 3 sq m RCS fighter target is 25-35km search and 20-35km
tracking when host aircraft is flying above 3000m. When flying from
1000m to 3000m altitude, range is reduced to 20-35km search and
18-35km track. When flying at 500-1000m achievable range is just
15-30km search and 13-25km tracking.
When target range is
below 20km, scan coverage is 40º in azimuth, 16.5º in elevation.
If target range is above 20km, scan
coverage is 30º in azimuth, 13.5º in elevation.
Individual targets can be resolved
providing they are separated 3-4km in range in Pursuit mode.
Errors in range measurement can be as high as 8km, but there
is no minimum range.
Lockon and transition to tracking mode
takes 1-4 seconds in Pursuit mode.
When "Cooperation" mode
is selected, the radar is automatically switched to an equivalent
mode to pursuit, scanning with the IRST.
Mode "SP" (???)
Information on this mode is not available. It is
believed to be a high PRF mode similar to Encounter mode, only
available on Soviet standard machines, with better ECCM
Mode "AVT" (Aootomaht) Automatic
Automatic mode uses a mixture of High and Medium PRF to give
optimal all aspect detection. Each line of the scan is alternated
between high and medium PRF, unless range is under 10km when only
medium PRF is used.
It generates a display calibrated to a
maximum range of 100km. Targets can be theoretically detected at
similar ranges to Encounter and Pursuit modes according to targets
direction of movement..
In Automatic mode tracking of a
target should continue regardless of target direction provided rate
of closure/opening is sufficiently high.
It is considered by
pilots to be quite problematic, overloading the data computer and
generating numerous false returns. It is primarily intended for use
when lacking information from the ground station concerning the
Track-while-flyby submode is not available in AVT mode. AVT mode
provides the same functionality automatically.
(Soprovazhdenie Na Prokhode) Track-While-Flyby
Track-While-Flyby submode can be set in Encounter or
Pursuit modes only.
Track-while-flyby mode allows the
simultaneous tracking of up to 10 targets, measuring their angular
position, range and rate of closure. The target with the highest
rate of closure/range ratio is designated the most dangerous, and
automatically marked on the display. The pilot can override the
automatic selection if he decides on another target. After switching
to track-while-flyby mode it is not clear if the radar continues
volume scanning, and it may be that only the (up to 10) tracked
targets are followed. Track-while-flyby mode will automatically
follow the target marked most dangerous (automatically or by pilot
override) in elevation, within the elevation limits of the radar,
without pilot intervention.
The TSVM computer calculates
missile launch parameters for the most dangerous target. As the
range to target approaches the calculated maximum missile launch
range, the radar will stop scanning for targets and transition to an
8º by 40º box pattern scan in the direction of the designated
target. If the target is located, the radar will transition to
single target tracking mode, and all other contacts are discarded.
If no target is found within 3 cycles, the radar returns to scanning
Track-while-flyby mode is intended to allow missile
launch at maximum range with minimal warning to the target, by
switching to true single target tracking mode as late as possible.
Mode "BL BOY" (Bleezhniy Boy) Close Combat
Close Combat mode overrides all other
modes. It uses a + 37º/ -13º fixed directly ahead vertical scan that
is 6º wide (2 scan lines) with a 2.5 sec scan cycle and provides
semiautomatic target acquisition. The closest target present in the
scan area will be locked when pressing the lockon button without
having to designate it.
Close Combat mode can lockon from
450 m to 10km in range, and track a locked on target down to 250m.
It is not slewable, but fixed straight ahead only. Targets
can be tracked in a closure rate range from +300 meters/second to
-500 meters/second including co-speed targets.
transition to tracking mode takes 1-2 seconds in Close Combat mode.
N019 is the USSR standard model.
N019EA is the version supplied to Warsaw
Pact countries. Lacks "SP" mode.
an export variant for general export. More downgraded. Less capable
TS100.02.06 digital processor. Also lacks "SP" mode.
N019M is an updated version, developed as a
response to the compromise of the N-019 radar by a US spy. Tested
from 1986, it entered limited production in 1991. Slightly lighter
than the N-019 at 350kg. N019 has increased ECM resistance, new
software, and a more advanced built-in monitoring system. A new
Ts101M computer relieves the processor overload problems of the
N019, more than doubling capacity to 400,000 operations per second
whilst weighing less, just 19kg, and with doubled MTBF of 1000h
compared to the 500h of the Ts100. N019M allows two targets to be
engaged by active radar homing missiles simultaneously. Range
increased slightly to 80km. Originally intended to be fitted to the
existing MiG-29 fleet as an upgrade, about 22 aircraft with N019M
are thought to have entered service with the VVS.
N019ME Topaz Export version of Topaz,
slightly downgraded. All Indian MiG-29s have been upgraded to this
N019MP is a further modified
radar proposed by Phazotron for the MiG-29SMT program. It used a
Baguet series processor. The maximum range remained the about the
same, but the radar could detect 20 targets simultaneously, track
four, and engage two. The radar had also basic air-to-ground
functions, like ground mapping mode, acquisition and engagement of
sea targets with radar homing missiles, and ground targets with
unguided weaponry under any weather conditions, day and night. The
NO19MP could generate maps of 15x15, 24x24, 50x50 or 77x77km with a
resolution of 15m. Radar imagery could be transmitted via datalink
to GCI centres or A-50 AWACS aircraft. Targets visible on the radar
map could be designated by the pilot(using a joystick) or ground
controller, and used to cue TV-guided missile seekers, whose higher
resolution imagery can then be displayed or transmitted to the GCI
or A-50 controller as well. Performance against slow flying
helicopters was improved as well as resistance to jamming. Uses
Doppler beam sharpening techniques. Now superceded by N019M1.
N019M1 This latest radar upgrade proposal
from Phazotron retains the antenna and transmitter block assemblies
but replaces pretty much all the rest of the radar. It introduces
new fully programmable digital processing, giving 30-50% greater
range in air-to-air search and track. Improved track-while-scan
mode, with the ability to continue volume search for new targets
while tracking 10. 4 targets can engaged at once with R-77 missiles.
4 different close combat modes are available. Has raid assessment
mode, and target class recognition. Air to surface modes include
Real beam, DBS, SAR (5x5m), and moving target detection. Can handoff
target data to the Kh-31A/Kh-35A anti-shipping missiles. Allows
target handoff to TV guided weapons. Collision alarm system. It is
being touted as a low cost upgrade for existing MiG-29
Phazotron-Ukraine are offering a UM522 low noise reciever to
replace the NO19-09 UHF receiver. This low cost drop-in replacement
part increases range 10-20%.
NATO "Clam Pipe"
Obzor radar in the nose of a
Obzor-MS is a long range pulse-doppler
air-to-surface radar, fitted to the Tu-95MS. It lacks a terrain
following mode, due to the Tu-95's inability to fly low-level
missions. Uses DBS (Doppler Beam Sharpening) for improved resolution
Obzor-K is an updated version of Obzor
designed for the Tu-160 (Aircraft K). Linked to Sopka TFR.
Range is around 300km.
A modernised Obzor radar is being developed for upgrading
remaining Tu-160 and some Tu-95MS with LPI (Low Probability of
Interception) and SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) modes.
Oko / E-801
OKB: NPO Vega
Oko radar deployed below Ka-31
This radar equips the Ka-31 AEW carrierborne helicopter. It
tracks 20 targets at at 100-150km, 250km against a large target.
Secondary processing is done on board ship. Antenna is 6m x 1.0m and
Modern FLIR/TV/Laser system, gyro-stabilised and with automatic
target tracking, under development at Ryazan.
OLS /OLS-30 / Izdeliye 52Sh
Designed by UOMZ for the Su-35. Integrates ground target range
finding and illumination capabilities, and possibly a TV channel
like that featured on the OLS-M for MiG-29M. Field of view is -15 to
+ 60 elevation, ± 60 azimuth.
4 different FOVs used, 60° x 10° (wide FOV) 20° x 5° (narrow
FOV), 3° x 75° (close combat vertical scan) 3° x 3° (lock on).
The range of working temperatures is -50 to +60°C. Dimensions are
841 x 916 x 575mm, weight of the whole assembly is 200kg. Fitted to
the Su-30MKK for China and Indian Su-30MKI.
Detection range may be as high as 90km.
OLS-27 / Izdeliye 36Sh
A combined IRST/LR device for the Su-27, similar to the MiG-29's
KOLS but more sophisticated, using a cooled, broader waveband,
sensor. Tracking rate is over 25deg/sec. 50km range in pursuit
engagement, 15km head-on. The laser rangefinder operates between
300-3000m for air targets, 300-5000m for ground targets.
Search limits are ±60deg azimuth, +60/-15° in elevation. Three
different FOVs are used, 60° by 10°, 20° by 5°, and 3° by
3°. Detection range is up to 50km, whilst the laser ranger is
effective from 300-3000m. Azimuth tracking is accurate to 5 secs,
whilst range data is accurate to 3-10m. Targets are displayed on the
same CRT display as the radar. Weighs 174kg.
OLS-27K for Su-33 featured new algorithms and better
processor. It allegedly tracked targets in pursuit mode by their IR
signature at 90 km during tests.
Designed for the MiG-29M/K. A combined IRST/LR/TV device.
Features a more sensitive cooled IR seeker, a more powerful laser
ranger and a TV channel. Can detect a fighter at 35km using
the IR channel, or 10km using the TV channel. Positive visual IDs
can be obtained at 6km. The laser rangefinder is effective out to
8km. Laser has ground target designation/rangefinding
Optical bombsight fitted to Yak-28I
Oryol / RP-11
NATO "Skip Spin"
OKB: Phazotron NIIR
Chief designer: G M Kunyavsky
Oryol-D58 mounted on an Su-15
Basic air intercept radar, using a parabolic antenna scanning
±30° in azimuth. Designed by a ex-NIIP team at Phazotron led by G M
Kunyavsky, and based on the team's earlier Sokol
design for the Yak-27K but shrunk somewhat in size. Improved
performance compared to OKB-1's TsD-30.
Oryol-D58 has an cassegrain
RP-11 Oryol development started in 1957 for
Su-11, also fitted to Yak-28P. Range 25-30km head-on against a
Detection range 10-15km tail-on against a fighter
Detection range 30-35km head-on against a Tu-16 target
Detection range 15-18km tail-on against a Tu-16 target
Oryol-D58 display from an Su-15
RP-15 Oryol-D58 improved
version developed for the Su-15.
RP-15M Oryol-D58M updated version fitted to
later production Su-15 models.
NATO: "Drop Kick"
Chief Designer: Yevgeny Zazorinym
Orion (top) and Relyief TFR
Orion was originally designed for the Su-7. Operating at
8mm wavelength(?), Orion was unfortunately far too large (antenna is
1.4m across) for the Su-7 nosecone, so it was hoped to carry it in
an external pod. The radar was too heavy, however, and the plans
were abandoned. The radar design eventually found its home on the
much larger Su-24. Using a conventional parabolic antenna, it has a
maximum range of 150 km, and could detect and track large targets
with significant radar contrast with the ground. It could be used
for blind bombing only against big area targets, such as railway
stations, large command posts, etc. A slightly improved version,
Orion-A, was fitted to the Su-24M.
Orion and Relyief during
OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP
Osa in MiG-21 configuration
This is an NIIP designed radar with a small phased array,
designed to compete with Kopyo and Moskit. Intended for use on the
MiG-29UBT aircraft. The radar can track eight targets, and engage
four at the same time within the entire scanning area of ±60deg in
azimuth and elevation. Peak power output is 3.5 kW, while average
power output is 700 W. The radar works in the X band. Allows use of
medium-range air-to-air missiles such as R-27 and R-77. Search range
is 85km versus 5 sq m target. TWS range is 65km. Weight is under
120kg, cubic capacity no more than 150dm3.
NATO "Splash Drop"
Antenna for the Osminog radar
Ka-27 radar, max range of 180km against a large ship.
Otklik / L-140
Laser warning sensor, suggested for Mi-24 upgrades, Mi-28, Ka-50
Primitive internal jammer fitted to Su-27, can only jam rearwards
when radar is in operation to avoid interference with the radar.
The final stage of N001 modernisation has been called "Panda". It
includes the Pero phased array antenna.
Contemporary design to the Uragan
(which led to the Smerch
radar), Pantera was suggested for the Sukhoi P-1 and advanced Su-9
versions. Worked with K-7 AAMs.
D-band IFF system, designed after the Khrom-Nikel system was
compromised. Not exported outside the USSR until after its
SRZO-2, SRO/SRZ-1P-62D Parol
Parol-2M - SRO-2M
Pastel / SPO-32 / L150
Chief Designers: V A Malykhin and V V Galaktionov
Basic model of Pastel digital
Pastel entered development in 1982, possibly as a reaction to
poor performance of Soviet fighters in the Middle East. By 1983 the
initial design was produced. It was intended for the Mi-28,
MiG-29K/M, Su-27M and others.
Pastel is a family of new generation digital RWRs.
Scans from 1.2-18GHz threat frequencies.
Accuracy is 3-5° with pinpoint location antenna, 10° in rough
location antenna. 128 reprogrammable radar types. Detection range
minimum of 120% of the radar's range. 3 modes- operational target,
programmed target, most dangerous target.
Detects and finds direction for pulse, pulse-doppler and CW mode
radars in search, track and illumination modes. Classifies multiple
threats by danger, with full display of all information about most
threatening radar presented to crew. Controls EW systems, has the
ability to control and assign targets to 6 anti-radiation missiles
such as the Kh-31. Aural warnings for high threat situations.
Mi-28 installation- note
Western-style CRT display
Pastel may be made available for upgrade packages or built into
new export models of the Mig-29 and Su-27 families.
Radio jammer fitted to ECM helicopters. Tom Cooper believes some
Iraqi Tu-22s were equipped with it as well.
OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP
Pero phased array
The system comprises an optically fed X band phased array of
reflective type (main radar) and an L band phased array of passing
type (IFF interrogators). Pero antennas are designed both for
updating the radars of existing aircraft fleet and for its
application in newly-developed systems.
Pero installation on an
Pero for Su-27
Antenna diameter, 1050mm
X-band, 34.0 dB
Mean phase level in X band, -38 dB
Pero for MiG-29
Antenna diameter, 750mm
limits ±55° Gain in X-band, 31.5 dB
Mean phase level in X band,
Pero can be integrated with the existing N001 or N019 radar to
increases its performance. The radar range of N001 increases to 190
km and the radar would be capable of tracking twelve targets and
engaging four of them with R-77 missiles.
As of 2001 two experimental Pero units had been assembled, and
one delivered to China to testing.
SLAR proposed to equip the dedicated Su-27R variant- now used in
external recce pod.
Jammer for Mi-28N.
Chief Designer: I P Belezertsev
Laser rangefinder/designator of the Su-25T Shkval
system. Production launched in 1988.
Progress pod on the MiG-27K
Pod to support the Kh-31, for MiG-27K. Very troublesome, and
still under development when the breakup of the Soviet Union ended
Pod mounted laser designator used in Kh-25 trials on Su-17M from
1973. Thought to have been used until deployment of internal laser
designators on Su-17 series and possibly the MiG-27 too.
Radar of Il-28
TV tracking system for Kh-23 missile?
Orion (top) and Relyef TFR
This is a terrain-following radar fitted to the Su-24M. It was
tested on a specially modified Su-15.
What appear to be TFR steering
cues on an Su-24 HUD?
Reseda Jammer installed in the Tu-95K-22
Rezeda-A / SPS-100A Jammer of the Tu-22
Ritsa antenna array on a Tu-16
Passive radar target finding system fitted to Tu-16K-11, used
with KSR-11 ARM.
NATO "Short Horn", "Down Beat"
Rubin-1 radar system was developed in 1962 for the
Tu-16K-11-16. Pulse design.
Rubin-1K was fitted to the Tu-16KSR-2. It
allowed frequencies to be tuned by 3% to prevent interference during
group operations. Range was about 200-240km.
Rubin-1KV was fitted to the Tu-95M-5 and
Rubin-1M was retrofitted in a large belly radome,
replacing the nose-mounted Rubin-1K, on the Tu-16KSR-2-5 and
Tu-16KSR-2-11, giving greater detection range to allow full use of
the KSR-5/11 (AS-6 Kingfish) missile's range. Maximum range could be
as great as 450km.
RBP-4 Rubin was the radar of the Tu-95M.
PN Rubin was the radar of the Tu-22 medium range
PNA-B Rubin was installed on the Tu-95K-22 and
PNA-D The Tu-22M-3 radar was further improved with doppler
beam sharpening mapping modes.
LLTV/laser designator pod, can be fitted to MiG-27M, tested on
Sablya-E / Izdeliye 122
OKB: NPO Vega
SLAR fitted to MiG-25RBS. Troublesome in service. Could not
operate below 17,000m, with post mission analysis
IR sight fitted to VVS MiG-21PFM, next to the ASP-PF gunsight. It
was intended, in conjunction with the radar and gunsight, for the
detection of target aircraft in tailchase engagements and employment
of all types of weapon at night and at all altitudes.
The Sapfir radar was planned to equip the 1962 Ye-8 improved
variant of the MiG-21, the first fighter to be intended for
production as "MiG-23" but later cancelled.
It was planned to be produced in two phases, first phase was
called "Sapfir-I" which was a conventional pulse radar design while
the second phase would use the improved "Sapfir-II" which used early
pulse-doppler (quasi-continuous) techniques. In the event Sapfir-I
was sufficiently reduced in size to fit to the basic MiG-21
airframe, entering service in 1965 as the MiG-21S with Sapfir-21
radar. Sapfir-II was further developed into Sapfir-23 for the
definitive variable-geometry MiG-23 design.
Sapfir-21 / RP-22 / Almaz?
NATO "Jay Bird"
OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP
Chief Designer: F. F. Volkov
Used an inverse-cassegrain antenna. Elements derived from Smerch
series radar. Search range 30km, tracking range 15km versus a 16 sq
RP-22S was fitted to the MiG-21S, used in Soviet
service only from 1965 onwards.
RP-22SM was fitted to the upgraded MiG-21SM,
also not exported, and later equipped the MiG-21bis which was
exported once the RP-22SM was no longer considered "sensitive".
RP-22SMA probably RP-22SM-A (version for
RP-22SMA radar operation.
controls the RP-22SMA radar with the help of switches and
light-buttons placed on the block 19, 19a and 19b control
Control panel block
Switch #1 is a three-position switch used to turn on and off the
radar. In the lowest position the radar is off. In the mid position
the radar is preparing for operation (3.5 – 5 min). In the top
position the radar is on.After the RADAR is turned on (the switch is
in the top position) a red light APCh should turn on, and off. If
the light fails to turn back off, the RADAR is not operational.
Aside from that, the RADAR screen should light up.
is a three-position switch used to control the "compensation
channel" and height of the beam. In the lowest possition the RADAR
works in the standard regime. In the mid position, the compensation
channel is turned on. In the top position the compensation channel
is turned on, and the lower border of the scaning beam is lifted by
+1.5 to +2deg over the horizon (this mode is reserved for low
Switch #3 is a two-position switch,
which controls the "locked beam" mode. In the lower position the
"locked beam" mode is off. In the upper position the beam is locked
in 0° in azimuth and –1.5° in elevation. A green light over the
switch signals this. This mode is used for launching Kh-66
beamriding radar guided missiles against ground targets.
This panel is located directly over the radar scope. On it,
there are red light-buttons (if a button is pressed it lights up).
Turning the light-button controls the brightness (The pic shows
Control panel block
- Button 1 – "interrogate" – turns on the IFF system
- Button 2 – "msc" – turns on the "speed selection" mode used to
attack low speed targets
- Button 3 – "control" – automatic testing of the whole set
- Button 4 – "break-lock" – breaks a lock and returns to scan
- Button 5 – "meteo" – turns on the mode for compensating for
difficult weather conditions
- Button 6 – "pass" – anti-passive jamming mode
- Buttons 7 and 8 – more anti-jamming modes
Control panel block
Panel 19b is only used in wartime.
search mode, the radar scans ±28° in azimuth and ±17° 40 min in
elevation. Max range is 30km. The radar display shows the range and
azimuth of the target. With the help of "higher" and "lower" marks,
in pitch ranging from –25 to +8° , it displays the altitude
difference. The display also shows the IFF status of the contact.
Search mode gates the target before lock.
RP-22 radar scope in scan mode
- Friendly target (if the IFF is on)
- Foe target (if the IFF is on)
- A target below our plane
- Gate. It is controled by the pilot, using a switch on the
throttle. The target has to be between the two horizontal lines to
- A target above our plane
- A target on the same altitude
- This light is on, when the RADAR is working in track mode, in
active jamming conditions
- Red light, which warns if the RADAR is inoperational. It
(RP-22) has to be turned off immediately if so
This is an ideal situation. In normal
conditions there are dozens of smaller and bigger bright dots, and a
couple of false targets (clouds, etc.). A pilot has to guess which
target is the real one, utilising information from the navigator and
different onboard devices. On the 1st pic the target is 10km away.
On the second one, it is 5km away, and the pilot should be able to
get a lock. To do that, he must press a button on the stick.
In the intercept (automatic track) mode,
the scope displays the azimuth and elevation of the target, the
range, the allowed launch zone, and calculates the range of the
RADAR scope in track mode.
- The range of azimuths allowed in the intercept
- Range markers
- Minimum allowed launch range
- Aiming mark
- Aiming ring
- Max allowed launch range
- "Seeker ready" light. This light is on, and the pilot hears a
tone in the headphones when the missile has locked on the target
8. "Launch" light. Optimal launch conditions have been met. The
pilot may launch
- "Breakaway" light – the pilot must immediately break the
When using the LAZUR automatic guidance
system, the three lights indicated give the direction to target. In
the picture, the target it to the right (light #3 is on). Light
number #1 indicates the target is on the left, and light #2 that the
target is directly in front of us.
NATO "High Lark"
OKB: Phazotron NIIR
Chief Designer: G. M. Kunyavsky
Sapfir-23 was designed by a team under Chief
Designer Kunyavsky for the MiG-23 fighter. A purely air-to-air
design, it was the first radar for a frontal fighter designed to
allow BVR engagements.
It used semiconductor technology
rather than vacuum tubes and a method of external coherence in the
mode "SDTs" (moving target selection) to detect aircraft flying
below the host aircraft. This had limitations- it could only detect
targets in the duration between successive pulses, and had multiple
"blind" velocities in multiples of its PRF.
It used an
analogue AVM-23 computer, and a twist-cassegrain antenna.
Some sources indicate that early versions could only detect
closing targets. The incorporation of an IRST into the MiG-23 may
therefore have been intended give a pursuit engagement capability.
Sapfir-23L was the radar of the initial
production MiG-23 (1970-71).
the full standard radar and the first with limited lookdown
capability. Search range was 55km against a closing Tu-16 sized
target, 45km against a MiG-21 in lookup mode. Tracking range was
about 35km, again in lookup mode. Fitted to production MiG-23M. Lots
of problems were encountered in service, as it required expert
tuning and high quality maintenance. It wasn't uncommon for the
detection range to vary 10 times from one set to the next. Weight
Sapfir-23D-Sh was improved
with better discrimination of low flying targets and improved ECCM.
Fitted to later production MiG-23M, older MiG-23M were upgraded to
this standard. "S-23D-III" found in some sources is a mistranslation
of this variant (caused by Cyrillic "Sh" character, which is three
vertical lines joined at the base).
was fitted to MiG-23MF export variants. Based on Sapfir-23D
with minor differences.
N003E Sapfir-23ML radar
was initially designed by G. M. Kunyavsky in the
early-to-mid seventies, completed by Yury Kirpichev and introduced
in 1976 as a major update to the Sapfir-23, after early service
experience showed various deficiencies in the original radar. As
part of a crash upgrade program, the radar was thoroughly
modernised, increasing ECM resistance. The Sapfir-23ML's weight
(around 350kg) was less than the original Sapfir-23, which helped
improve the MiG-23's agility. Search range against a fighter was
55km in look-up mode, 20km in look-down mode. Against a Tu-16 (16 sq
m), the detection range increased to 75-80 km and 22-25 km in
look-up and look-down modes repectively. Tracking range against the
same target was 46.5-50 km in lookup and 20-25 km in
Yantar / Sapfir-23ML-2 was a
variant designed for the MiG-29A, a cut-down MiG-29 intended to use
existing technology to achieve IOC by 1979. Designed by Yuriy
Figurovsky, it was a repackaged and slightly improved version of the
MiG-23's radar. Difficulties in fitting it into the MiG-29 were
overcome by enlarging the wing roots, but it was abandoned in 1976
along with the MiG-29A. All Phazotron's efforts were redirected to
the urgent task of developing the Sapfir-25 radar.
N005 / Sapfir-25 / RP-25MN /
Sapfir-25 was developed by a team under Kirpichev as a very high
priority task after the defection of Viktor Belenko to Japan in 1976
compromised the MiG-25's radar. For speed of development, an
existing radar had to be selected, and the MiG-23ML's radar, with
its lookdown capability, was the obvious choice. Changes included
the use of a larger antenna.
Detection range in lookup mode against a Tu-16 was 105-115km
head-on. Tracking range against the same target was about 75-80km.
Lookdown mode reduced these ranges to 27-30km and 22-25km
Detection ange against a MiG-21 in lookup mode was 70km head-on,
while tracking range was about 50-60km.
Weight was 337kg. Used AVM-25 analog computer.
it could engage faster targets at higher altitudes, featured greater
search and tracking range, provided lookdown/shootdown capability
and close combat modes. It had 30° (±15deg) and 60° (±30 deg)
azimuth search patterns, ±14° in elevation.. It also had better
anti-jamming protection. Azimuth scanning limits were slightly
reduced to ±56° , elevation to +52/-42° , by the twist-cassegrain
N006 Ametist / Sapfir-23MLA /
Sapfir-23PA was a further improved version of
N003/Sapfir-23ML radar, used on the MiG-23MLA (?) and final
production MiG-23P variants. Probably has most of the capabilities
N008 Sapfir-23MLA-2 was
fitted to existing MiG-23s from 1984 during upgrade to MiG-23MLD
(23-18) standard. Their whole avionics suite was greatly updated,
including the radar, IRST, IFF, with the fitting of R-73 AAMs and an
HMS. While some sources allege a multiple target track capability,
former Soviet pilots deny this, and it is not true. MTBF (Mean Time
Between Failure) was 60 hours.
was the export variant of the above. It has three primary
modes- search (with sub-modes for lookup and lookdown), single
target track, and close air combat.
combat mode uses a vertical scan in two vertical bars – 6° in
azimuth and +42/-1.5 degin elevation, up to 9 km in distance with
semi-auto target track. The target has to be ‘put' into the HUD's
(sight's) field of view. It is not good for tracking targets
maneuvering at low level towards the ground due to excessive
clutter. The radar antenna 'slaves' the R-60MK or R-73 seeker
towards the target in this mode.
has two new search sub-modes. The first is called PSTs, used for
better target discrimination in lookdown – with improved Doppler
selection of moving targets at altitude above 50m (150ft) – useful
for operations over mountains with high ridges or over urban areas
which otherwise would generate strong false targets masking the real
target. The second mode is called MPH – designed to counter chaff
and cloud reflections at medium/high altitude, which would otherwise
mask the real target.
intended for the early Su-27 designs (T-10) with a fighter target
range of 40-70 km lookup, 20-40 km lookdown in both front and rear
hemispheres for a fighter target.
Sapsan-E pod displayed at MAKS
Sapsan uses a stabilized optical channel in a revolving head, to
which TV (optional TI), a laser rangefinder, and a laser target
illuminator are attached. The vertical movement of the optical head
is from +10 to -150° , and it rotates +150° to either side, covering
all but the rear quarter of the aircraft. It can be used in
conjunction with laser- or TV-guided munitions.
ELINT system of MiG-25RBF. Realtime datalink.
ECM system fitted to Mi-8TSh
OKB: Krasnogorsk OMZ
I-25I Shkval The Shkval system designed for the
Su-25T (and Ka-50) includes a high-resolution TV camera, with a 27°
by 36° field of view wide-angle mode for search and a 0.7° , 23x
magnification narrow-angle mode for targeting, and a laser target
boresighted to the camera.
Shkval detects, tracks and identifies fixed and moving ground
targets and slow airborne targets. It has manual, software corrected
and automatic tracking. It can iteroperate with the navigation
system, the radar and thermal imager pod (if fitted).
Shkval footage from the Su-25T
The Shkval system is steerable through 35° to either side of the
aircraft, and from 15° above the centerline to 80° below. Its range
against tank-sized targets was 8 km.
Prichal operates at 1.064 micron wavelength. It uses a 5Hz pulse
repetition rate in rangefinding and 10-25Hz in illumination mode. It
has greater range than the older Klen-PS and a narrower beam of 1.5
angular minutes. Rangefinding error was no more than ±5m, maximum
range 10km, weight was 46kg and maximum power consumption 4.8kW.
Shkval engaging a tank
Shkval detection range was 20-24km for a large landmark like a
bridge, 15km for a single building, 10km for a fighter and 6km for a
Shkval engaging a low-speed
I-25IV Shkval-V for Ka-50 is basically the same
Shkval display in Ka-50 cockpit
Shkval-M is an upgraded version that was intended for the
Su-25TM. It can perform automatic search and correlative target ID
in scanning mode, cued by the Kopyo-25 radar or the aircraft's
onboard navigation system. Shkval-M also finds threats illuminated
by ground based designators, and can be used to designate targets
for engagement by Krasnopol laser guided artillery shells.
Another view of the Shkval
display in a Ka-50
OKB: NPO Vega (NII-17)
Chief Designers: Vladimir Ivanov (system), V Pogreshayev
(radar), O Rezepov (computer)
Shmel is mounted in a rotodome
on the A-50
Shmel was designed in the mid-to-late seventies, when it
became clear that a replacement for the Tu-126 and its Liana radar
was necessary. Initially, it was conceived as an update to Liana,
and was intended for retrofit to the Tu-126. However, the weight and
bulk of the radar and its associated equipment spiralled upwards,
and soon it became clear that a new carrier was needed. Beriev's
A-50 proposal of an Il-76 conversion was ordered, along with the
Schmel radar system.
Shmel works in frequencies from 2 to 4 GHz, minimum peak power
output is 1MW, and it is frequency agile from low PRF to high PRF.
The transmitter is mounted at the rear and lead shielded for
protection of the crew.
Primary flat plate antenna is integrated with an IFF interrogator
and datalink antennas in a 9m diameter disc radome . Standard
rotation is 6 turns/min. It is mechanically scanned in azimuth,
electronically scanned in elevation up to 20°.
It is a 3D radar, giving target elevation information. It has
passive direction finding capability, IFF interrogate function, and
fighter control via digital datalink. It was also plagued by
reliability and overload problems with its digital computers, which
limited the number of targets that could be simultaneously tracked
to 50-60 and also limited range to about 150km. Can control 10
intercepts via digital datalink.
Shmel-2 has a new digital computer that generally solves
the reliability problems of Shmel. It has a longer target detection
range, and can track 100-150 simultaneous targets. Generally similar
in performance to an early model E-3A Sentry AWACS. Fitted to the
A-50M. Can control 15 intercepts via digital datalink. Possibly
entered service in 1993.
Shmel-M was designed for the A-50U updated version.
Increased ECM resistance, with further improvements to range and
number of targets tracked raised to 200-300. Not in service.
Shmel-2 is supposedly fitted to the A-50E export
version for China. It is said to track 200-300 targets, control 30
intercepts via secure datalink (15 by radio voice commands), which
sounds like Schmel-M.
OKB: NPO Vega (NII-17)
Shompol replaced the Sablya in service on the MiG-25RBSh. It
could operate at heights from 300 to 23,000m, and its resolution was
2-3 times greater. It introduced a moving target selection mode and
a combined MTS/mapping mode. Also fitted to Tu-22RDM between 1981
Shpil-2M pod carried below the
Laser radar pod of Su-24MR. 0.25 m resolution, covers a strip as
wide as 4 times the host aircraft's altitude.
Synthetic aperture, side looking radar which has moving target
indication and high resolution mapping modes (5m). Covers an area
from 4 to 28 km from either side of the aircraft.
Siren / Gvozdika
Siren-F / Siren-FSh /
Siren-1D-OSh / SPS-141 / SPS-141M
SPS-141MVG-E / SPS-142 /
This series covers a whole range of individual jamming stations
equipping attack aircraft and bombers.
SPS-141MVG-E Gvozdika is pod-mounted on the
Su-25. Jams 2 distinct bands. It works in four modes: individual
protection, two-aircraft protection (both aircraft having the
SPS-141, cooperating with each other in jamming the enemy radar),
"Doppler noise" mode, and low-level mode, where the equipment uses
the terrain bounce effect in jamming.
Other Gvozdika models feature repetition pulse jamming, noise
jamming, flickering, range/velocity stealing.
Siren series jammer is fitted to Tu-95K-22
RWR used on MiG-21F. It was capable of detecting a radar lock
from the rear hemisphere only, with audio warning.
SPO-3 wingtip pods
An improved RWR used on the MiG-21R; also used as part of the ECM
system SPS-100 Rezeda.
Sirena-3M (SPO-10) cockpit
Airborne H- through J-band airborne analog radar warning
receiver. Fitted to many Soviet tactical aircraft including MiG-23).
Gives quadrant-based direction only. Replaced by SPO-15
Jammer fitted to ECM An-12 variant
NATO "Big Nose", "Fox Fire"
RP-S Smerch, designed by F. F. Volkov, was the first
really useful airborne intercept radars to be developed in the USSR.
It was designed to detect and destroy incoming bombers at the
maximum range possible. It began life as the Uragan radar for
various interceptor projects. Uragan-5B was designed for the Mikoyan
E-150 series, with K-9 missiles. Installed in an inlet centrebody,
it didn't really achieve its required performance. Uragan-5B-80 was
a redesign for the Tu-28P with K-80 missiles. This was a far more
successful radar, which was redesignated Smerch when it entered
service. Unlike previous interceptors, space was not at a premium on
the Tu-128 which allowed the Smerch to achieve significant advances
in detection ranges over previous Soviet radars within the limits of
the bulky vacuum tube electronics then available. The Smerch had a
large antenna, the destinctive bulged nose of the Tu-128 giving rise
to the NATO codename, "Big Nose". It was a low-PRF pulse design.
Smerch could detect a bomber at 80km, track it at 50km and engage
with an R-4R missile at 32km, giving it a true beyond-visual-range
(BVR) capability for the first time in the USSR. It had azimuth
limits of ±60°, scanning ±6° in elevation.
Smerch-A showing detail of
RP-SA / RP-25 / Smerch-A / Izdeliye
720 was first introduced into service on the improved
Tu-128A model. This improved Smerch design was used as the basis of
the MiG-25's RP-25 radar. It weighed 500kg. The
Smerch-A1 as fitted to the MiG-25 prototypes
introduced a second, secret operating wavelength of 2cm in addition
to the standard 3cm to ensure the radar would function even in a
heavy ECM environment. Smerch-A1 could detect a bomber with 16 sq m
RCS at about 100km, with tracking range remaining about 50km. By the
time it entered production, improvements in jamming resistance and
low-level clutter tolerance had been achieved. Smerch-A2 /
Izdeliye 720M gave improved reliability, and was the
standard radar, and Smerch-A3 more improvements,
which were fitted to later model MiG-25Ps as they rolled off the
production line. Smerch-A4 was presented for
testing, featuring a rudimentary look-down capability, but by this
time the sucessful deployment of the Sapfir-23
radar with a different method of clutter rejection that was rather
more successful made the Smerch family redundant. The subsequent
defection of Viktor Belenko with a MiG-25P compromised the secrets
of the Smerch-A radar and ensured its rapid withdrawal from Soviet
service, though refurbished sets were fitted to new build MiG-25PDs
Smerch-A2 radar display on an
RP-SM Smerch-M was the final iteration of the Smerch
design used on the Tu-128M. Smerch-M reduced the weapons system's
minimum combat altitude from 8,000-10,000 m down to 500-1,500 m
while enhancing its jamming resistance. Probably equivalent to
Smerch-AS was intended for the Su-15, giving all
three interceptors (Su-15, Tu-128, MiG-25) a common radar system. It
wasn't an easy fit, however, and instead Oryol-D58
was fitted in the short term, while the definitive radar became the
Smerch derivative Taifun.
Smerch-100 / Groza / Vikhr
OKB: Phazotron NIIR
Smerch-100 was a late sixties design for the MiG-25MP
(later MiG-31) and advanced Tupolev interceptors. Its designers,
Phazotron NIIR, made extravagant claims for its performance. It was
to be a combined radar/infrared fire control system. The Smerch-100
FCS comprised an FMICW phased array radar (PAR) based on the
Sapfir-23 technical base with a huge 2m antenna dish, an infrared
target acquisition and tracking system mated with the radar, a
digital computer and additional side-view radar antennae. The
Smerch-100 developer promised to provide the system with a
3,000-3,500km head-on acquisition range for aerial targets similar
to the Tu-16, 600km lateral scanning acquisition range as well as
100km infrared acquisition range.
The Smerch-100 system was supposed to ensure launching and
guiding the air-to-air missiles at a range of 250 km when attacking
targets head on. Such a radar would enable a single interceptor to
keep tabs on a vast sector of the aerospace and be to some extent
used as a AWACS aircraft in support of the local air defence zone
and other interceptors.
Plans for the first stage of development provided for outfitting
the interceptor with K-100 combined infrared/radar homing missiles
featuring various warheads and an effective range of 80 km. In the
future, there could be transition to longer-range air-to-air
missiles since the Smerch-100 was capable of handling them. The
Smerch-100 fire control system was expected to have full lookdown
capability, encompassing the destruction of targets travelling at a
speed of 500- 4,500km/h at altitudes between 50m and 35,000m. A
joint automatic data exchange system for receiving data on various
targets and commands from command posts and transferring it to other
aircraft was also part of the design.
Two prototype radars designated Groza and Vikhr were produced,
but were not successful in tests. NIIR had failed to solve the two
problems of detecting small objects against ground clutter, and
tracking multiple targets simultaneously.
Given the state of digital technology in the USSR at the time
such a radar was far beyond the realms of possibility. Indeed even
today it would be a tall order. All documentation for the project
was passed over to NIIP.
The far more realistic NIIP Zaslon project officially replaced
the Smerch-100 in 1971, eventually entering service in
Advanced derivative of Oryol radar
with 950mm diameter radar suggested for Su-15. Was rejected in
favour of a less ambitious upgrade (Oryol-D58)
for an interim fit with Smerch to
Sokol (1) /RP-6
NATO: "Scan Three"
OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP
Chief Designer: G. M. Kunyavsky
Radar of the Yak-25M. Detection range for a bomber was 33-35
Improved variants Sokol-M, Sokol-2, and then Sokol-2K variants
were proposed for the successor Yak-27K, but the plane was never
Terrain following radar fitted to the Tu-160 and linked to the Obzor-K
OKB: NPO Istok
An experimental radar of the late 1970s/early 1980s, possibly
based partly on stolen information on the APG-65. NPO Istok designed
and built 3 prototype radars with digital signal processing, planar
antenna, and ground mapping capabilities, one of which was tested in
an airborne platform. However, it was strictly a technology
demonstrator, and the N001 and N019 production radars that
eventually entered service were far less sophisticated. Some of the
technology eventually ended up in the N010 Zhuk and N011 Bars
Sorbtsiya wingtip ECM pods
SPS-171 / L005S /Sorbtsiya-S works in the H/I band and
consists of two pods installed on the wingtips of the Su-27, an
interface with the mission computer, and a control panel in the
cockpit. Each pod has phased-array antennas fore and aft. The middle
section of the Sorbtsiya houses the receivers, emitters, and
techniques generator. Among the jamming techniques employed by the
system are noise jamming and terrain bouncing. The electronic
phased-array antenna permits detection over a wide frequency range
and the direction of more than ten jamming beams against air-to-air
and surface-to-air threats.
The installation of the pods on the wingtips has many advantages
explained Boris Akinshin, deputy chief designer at KNIRTI. First,
the wide space between each pod allows a better coverage of the
environment around the aircraft and better signal localization. In
addition, the design of the pod is such that it can listen to and
jam a threat simultaneously. For instance, when entering a threat
zone, the forward part of the right pod will listen, searching for a
ground-to-air threat, while the forward part of the left pod will
perform the jamming. Such a division of work can be achieved with
the rear part of the pods as well.
The Sorbtsya system is already fitted to some Russian Su-27s, and
it is available for export. Sources indicate that the People's
Republic of China is perhaps the most likely candidate to receive
the new pods.
SPS-171/172 fitted internally to Tu-22M3
Internal arrangement of the
SPS-1 / SPS-2
ECM systems fitted to the Tu-16SPS. 42 had SPS-1 and 102 had
SPS-2. SPS-1 created 50-120W interference in 20-300cm band, while
SPS-2 created 250-300W interference in the 9.5-12.5cm band. They
were manually operated, with a dedicated operator who had to
determine the radar to be jammed, work out its frequency, using the
SRS-1BV and SRS-1D radio reconnaissance systems, and then tune the
jamming transmitter to the appropriate frequency. Even well-
prepared operators needed about 2-3 minutes to carry out this task,
which could mean the enemy aircraft getting close enough to burn
through the jamming. They were also ineffective against multichannel
or retunable radars.
Jammer for low level operation. Possibly part of the Buket suite
SRS-1BV / SRS-1D
ELINT system used with the SPS-1/2 jammers on Tu-16SPS
SRS-4 Romb (Izdeliyie 30)
ELINT system of MiG-25RB. SRS-4A, -4B and -4V subvariants.
Rhomb-4 fitted to Il-20.
SRS-9 (Izdeliyie 31)
ELINT system of MiG-25RBV.
Synthetic aperture side looking radar used on Su-24MR giving a
resolution of 5 to 7.5m, covering an area from 4 to 28km outwards
from the aircraft centerline.
Taifun (1) / RP-26
NATO "Twin Scan"
OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP
Chief designer: F F Volkov
Taifun-M mounted on an
Developed for the Su-15TM updated interceptor, the Taifun was
derived from the Smerch-A radar of the MiG-25P but smaller with
slightly inferior performance.
RP-26 Taifun initial version, fitted to Su-15T.
Proved very troublesome, the experimental units constructed by the
developer (NIIP) being rather poor. The initial production sets,
produced by Leninetz who built the series Smerch-A, proved rather
better, and were used to finish testing.
RP-26M Taifun-M definitive version. Initial
conical radome produced undesirable interference, reducing range,
leading to a new ogival radome. Used in conjunction with the R-98
Search range, in free space: 60-70 km (bomber) 45-55 km
Tracking range, in free space: 40-45km (bomber) 35-40km
Search range at low altitudes: 10-12km (bomber) 6-10km
Tracking range at low altitudes: 7-10km (bomber)
Taifun-M2 final production version, introduced
after Belenko's defection which compromised the Smerch-A radar which
Taifun was based on. While the MiG-25 got a new radar, the Su-15
simply got an update.
Taifun / VSP-K / L-067
Refitted to Tu-16K-10-26P in 1979-80 to replace the Ritsa system,
Taifun searched for US warships via their radar emissions. Ranges of
380-400km for target reconniasance mode and 350-380km for target
designation mode were achieved. It did not prove especially useful
in service, however.
ELINT pod of Su-24MR. Also fitted (internally?) to
Experimental radar designed by A. B. Slepouchkine, used on I-320,
also intended for Yak-25. Never entered service.
TP-23 / Spektr
Infra-red search and track system fitted to MiG-23M. TP-23 was
also fitted to early Su-24 models. Search limits on the MiG-23
installation were +3°/-12° in elevation and +30°/-30° in azimuth.
TP-23 could detect a Tu-16 at 30 km, and a MiG-23 at 20km, on a
TP-23-1 fitted to export MiG-23MF, MiG-23ML
TP-23M modernised version developed for Soviet MiG-23ML.
Search range of TP-23M against a Tu-16 target was increased to
35-40km, and against a MiG-23 to 25km.
Infra-red radar search and track system fitted to MiG-23MLA/MLD.
Range is said to be up to 85 km for a tail-on engagement with an
afterburning bomber-sized target, or 60km non-afterburning (Piotr
Butowski says 60km maximum). IRST has 5 operating modes depending on
the distance to the target. The sensor is mounted under the nose,
behind a triangular glass fairing. Some pilots have suggested it has
better performance than the MiG-29's KOLS.
Infra-red search and track system fitted to MiG-25PD. Presumably
based on the TP-26. Range given as 45km against a high altitude
bomber (aspect unknown).
TsD-30 / RP-21 / RP-9
NATO "Spin Scan"
Chief Designer: A A Kolosov
TsD-30 / RP-21 / RP-9
The working principle of the RP-21 relies on a continuously
transmitting antenna that is move mechanically in horizontal lines
+/-30° from the centerline as well as vertically +/- 10° . The
maximum detection range is 20 km with a maximum of 10 km for locking
on for a Tu-16 sized target. Performance against a fighter is 13 km
and 7 km respectively.
TsD-30T / RP-21 / RP-9U was
fitted to early model MiG-21PF and Su-9. RP-21 had 4 operating
modes- 'Search', 'Acquisition','Pursuit', 'Taking Aim'. The antenna
is gyro-stabilized between +/-60° of bank and +/- 40° of pitch.
TsD-30TP / RP-21M / RP-9UK
fitted to late model (aircraft c/n 76210703 onwards) MiG-21PF/PFM
and late model Su-9. The TsD-30TP had jamming protection, a
roll-stabilized antenna and a larger position display. An additional
feature of the TsD-30TP radar was the fixed-beam target illumination
function, which allowed use of K-5 AAMs.
RP-21MA export version of
RP-21M, equipped some MiG-21M export version
RP-21ML export version of
RP-21M, equipped some MiG-21M export version
(possibly non-WarPac nations)
K-9 AAM-armed E-152A and E-152 aircraft were to be fitted with
the K-9 system with TsP-1 radar, developed by the Design Bureau-1
(now the Almaz central design bureau) and featuring 30-km detection
OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP
Uragan was an intercept radar proposed for various
interceptor project from the late 50s. Separate scan/track
Uragan-5B was designed for the E-150 series, with K-9
missiles. Radar did not enter service. Worked in 3 modes- Search
(30km), Track (20km) and Illumination. Transmitter power was 4 times
greater, and it had a large single antenna.
Uragan-5B-80 designed for the Tu-28P with K-80
missiles. Redesignated Smerch
NATO "Big Bulge"
OKB: Kvant Research Institute
Uspekh-1A is the radar of the Tu-95RTs. 400km
range. It was developed by the Kiev-based Kvant Research Institute
(who also designed many shipborne naval radars) in the early 1960s
and accepted for service in 1966.
The Uspekh-1A system mounted in the Tu-95RTs put a large search
radar in the bomb bay ("Big Bulge"). The undernose radome replaced
the Rubidiy-MM radar bombsight of the basic Tu-95 and was used for a
datalink system. The maximum range of the radar is claimed to be
Uspekh-2A is the radar of the Ka-25Ts. Uspekh-2A
s featured a large search radar ("Big Bulge") in the nose. This
replaced the Initsiativa ("Mushroom") radar of the basic Ka-25PL.
The radar imagery datalink antenna was positioned underneath the
rear tail. Range of the radar is claimed to be about 250km, perhaps
due to a smaller antenna and/or transmitter than the Tu-95RTs.
The Ka-25Ts could not designate targets on its own- it simply
acted as a relay back to the ship. On the ship or sub, the operator
saw the radar screen image transmitted from the Ka-25Ts, and was
able to select a target. The ship or sub could then steer the
missile via a command link to the vicinity of the target where its
onboard radar could take over.
SIGINT equipment for listening to communications, fitted to Il-20
ESM pod for detecting, identifying radars and handing target
information to Kh-27PS/Kh-25MP missiles.
A metric wavelength SLAR intended for the MiG-25R. Not produced.
YaD / A-336Z
NATO "Crown Drum" ("Top Crown"?)
Radar of the Tu-95K-20.
NATO "Puff Ball"
Radar of the Tu-16K-10. A massive set, frequency spacing allowed
simultaneous launch of 18 missiles by a single group. It also could
steer 60° either side in azimuth, which allowed the plane to turn
off of a direct collision course, limited to 9-12° of bank by the
stabilisation of the antenna. Range was 320km.
Later versions increased range by changing the frequency and
length of outgoing pulses. Range was increased to as much as 450km.
Yen-R was a further tweaked model especially for
the Tu-16RM-1 recce version. With a pulse power of 180kW, range was
up to 480km, and it could detirmine the largest ship of a group.
Zaslon / S-800 / RP-31 / N007
NATO "Flash Dance"
OKB: Tikhomirov NIIP
Designer: Alfred Fedotchenko
Zaslon antenna shown at MAKS
The N007 Zaslon was the first phased-array radar to enter service
on a fighter aircraft. In 1968, Phazotron had been tasked with
developing the radar for the future MiG-31. Engineers prepared two
prototype units, dubbed Groza and Vikhr, both based on Sapfir-series
technology. The final version was called Smerch-100, but the radar
failed to meet requirements. As a result, in 1971 Phazotron was
ordered to pass all the documentation to its consortium partner
NIIP. The result was the Zaslon radar. The task was very difficult,
since one of the main requirements was engaging cruise missiles, and
the experienced Phazotron had failed to solve the problem of
detecting small objects against ground clutter and tracking multiple
targets simultaneously. Finally all the problems were solved, with
lots of assistance from NPO Istok, who helped design the phased
array, and Leninetz who were to build it, and the system finally
reached service in December 1981. Zaslon is double the weight of the
AWG-9, the largest US fighter radar. The NIIP team believed that the
advantages a phased-array radar gave in terms of near-instantaneous
scanning and multitarget engagement capability (a typical
mechanically-scanned antenna can take 12-14 seconds to complete a
scan) were worth the weight and cost penalties. First tests of the
radar were conducted in 1973, and it was first flown on a test
aircraft in 1976. On February 15, 1978, a mission in which ten
targets were detected and tracked was performed for the first time.
In 1981, MiG-31 aircraft carrying the Zaslon radar entered service
with the Air Defense aviation, and became fully operational in 1983.
The 1.1m diameter, 30cm deep, phased array antenna weighs 300kg,
the whole radar weighing in at 1000kg. Zaslon uses an Argon-15A
computer (first airborne digital computer designed in USSR). Zaslon
operates in 9-9.5 GHz band. It detects and engages targets down to
25m, including cruise missiles. Maximum possible search range is
300km for a large airborne target.
Range, headon, versus bomber: 180-200km search, 120-150km
Range, tailchase, versus bomber: 90km search, 70km track
Range, headon, versus fighter : 120-130km search, 90km track
Zaslon can detect targets as small as 0.3 sq. m radar
cross-section (RCS) to a maximum range of 65 km
Radar scan limits are ±70 azimuth, +70/-60 elevation.
Target track TWS mode, track 10 and engage 4.
Average power transmitted is 2.5kW.
MTBF is 55 hours.
Zaslon display showing 5
Target entering engagement zone
Zaslon-A security of the Zaslon system was
compromised by the US spy A. Tolkachev. This lead to development of
an updated version, fitted to MiG-31B from 1990, retrofitted to some
earlier models during rebuilding to MiG-31BS standard. It had a new
data processor, giving extended capabilities, longer range and
better ECM resistance.
Zaslon-M 1.4m diameter antenna, 50% to 100% better
performance than Zaslon. In April 1994 used with an R-37 to hit a
target at 300km distance. Search range 400km versus a 19/20 sq m RCS
target. Tracks 24 targets at once, engages 6. Supposedly able to
engage launched Pershing-2 missiles in flight with long-range R-37
active radar-guided missiles. Project ended as no new MiG-31s will
Zaslon-AM all MiG-31s remaining in service are
supposed to have their radars upgraded to Zaslon-AM status by
Leninets, according to a design put forward by NIIP that keeps the
existing antenna while replacing the old Argon-15A processors with
Baget series processors.
Infra-red reconnaissance system of Su-24MR, able to detect
temperature differences of just 0.3° C. Scans an area of 3.4 times
aircraft height. Downloads directly to ground via VPS-1 datalink or
records to film in 7 shades of grey.
Zhuk / N010
OKB: Phazotron NIIR
Chief Designer: Yuri Guskov
Zhuk (Phazotron website)
The original Zhuk radar was designed by in the mid eighties for
the MiG-29M, an update of the MiG-29 intended to rectify the
shortcomings of the original MiG-29. Tested from 1987 on a special
MiG-29 (9-16) testbed machine, and drawing on the NPO Istok Soyuz
program, the Zhuk was intended to be the first truly multimode radar
developed in the former Soviet Union, with a full range of air-air
and air-ground modes enabling the host aircraft to perform a wide
range of tasks. It used improved TS101 series processors and a
slotted antenna. Political changes in the early nineties meant that
the MiG-29M was first postponed and then cancelled. The Russian air
force was not especially impressed with the original Zhuk radar, as
it did not significantly increase the air-to-air detection and
tracking range, preventing exploitation of the full capabilities of
the extended range R-27 and R-77 missiles. It is also thought that
the prototype Zhuk did not have the air-to-surface modes fully
Phazotron have since developed a whole family of radars based on
the Zhuk, tailored to installation on different aircraft, and with
varying levels of capability. The Kopyo is
based largely on Zhuk technology, repackaged for installation into
light fighters such as the MiG-21. Zhuk is a large radar for its
performance class, as might be expected from the crude and bulky
electronics of the former Soviet Union at the time it was designed.
Depending on range, the radar has +20, +60, or even +90° of
detection/track angle in azimuth and two or four bars in elevation
(+60/-40° maximum). 680mm diameter antenna. The radar could
cooperate with the new R-77 (AA-12) missiles with active radar
seekers. Two missiles could be launched against two separate targets
at the same time, and two others shortly afterwards. The radar works
in X band. Zhuk has 5 kW peak power and 1 kW average power.
Air to air modes:
- Velocity search
- RWS (Range-While-Search) mode
- Lookup: 80-85km range
- lookdown head-on: 80-85km range
- lookdown tailchase: 40-50km range
- TWS (Track-While-Scan) mode
- tracks simultaneously 10 targets, automatically selects the
most dangerous 2 to 4 of them, engaging them with R-77 missiles
out to 60km
- STT (Single Target Tracking)
- Raid assessment
- Close combat modes
- Wide angle
- Vertical scan
- HUD view
- Recognition of target types and quality
- Detection and engagement of hovering helicopters
Air to surface modes:
- Real beam mapping
- DBS (Doppler Beam Sharpening) mapping
- SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) ground mapping
- Multiple target tracking
- Map freeze and zoom
- Sea surface surveillance: Range 120-150km vs a large ship.
- Ground Moving Target Indication
- Ground ranging
- Ground speed measurement
- Beacon interrogation
- Terrain avoidance
- Employment of unguided munitions on receipt of radar
information ('blind' bombing").
Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, Phazotron developed a
series of radars based on the Zhuk. The splitting of Phazotron and
NIIP, the latter responsible for the N011 designed for the Su-27M,
resulted in rival studies for Zhuk derivatives to fit on advanced
Sukhoi Su-27 variants. Also, the Kopyo radar was designed, based on
Zhuk technology, specifically for the purpose of upgrading older
aircraft such as the MiG-21.
This version was designed to fit the Chinese F-8II interceptor,
after the intended AN/APG-66 radars became unavailable due to US
sanctions. It has slightly downgraded capabilities: maximum range is
90 km against a bomber and 70 km against a fighter; it can detect
ten targets, track two of them, and fire a missile at a single
target. The maximum field of view was reduced to +85° in azimuth and
in elevation to +55/-40° . Weight is 240kg. It turns the somewhat
obsolescent F-8II into a more useful aircraft, with multimode
capabilities. This radar may be in service in China.
Zhuk-27 (Phazotron website)
Zhuk-27 represents a simple repackaging of the basic Zhuk
design for the Su-27 airframe. It certainly sports a larger antenna
than the standard model, perhaps with greater transmitter power too.
Scan limits are slightly reduced, to ±85° in azimuth, and weight
increased to 275kg. The changes increase detection range of a
fighter target to 130km, tracking range to 90km.
Zhuk-PH was a more radical upgrading of
the basic Zhuk design for Su-27 size aircraft. It added a new
phased-array antenna, and also featured a high PRF velocity search
mode for maximum detection range, without range information. Search
range was predicted to be 165km and 140km against a 3 sq m RCS
target in velocity search mode and range-while-search respectively.
The phased-array antenna took the weight to 275-300kg, while scan
limits were ±70° in azimuth and elevation. 24 targets could be
tracked at once, and 6 to 8 engaged simultaneously.
Evolved into Sokol (Zhuk-MSF)
Zhuk-M mounted on a MiG-29
Zhuk-M features a greater air and sea target detection
range, enhanced resolution against ground in synthetic aperture
radar mode, as well as an advanced "Baget" series computer. Compared
to the N019 radar installed on the majority of MiG-29s, Phazotron
achieved greater target detection range, observation angles in
azimuth close to 90° , greater number of targets that can be
detected and attacked, air-to-surface capability, use of the R-27ER1
and RVV-AE missiles, as well as targeting of the Kh-31A and Kh-35
Look-up range is 130km head-on, 50km tail-on versus fighter
Look-down range is 120km head-on, 40km tail-on versus fighter
TWS mode tracks 10-20 targets and engages 2-4.
Antenna: 624mm diameter,
Peak power output: 6kW
Average power output:
Power required: 12 kVA AC, 1.5 kVA DC
Zhemchoug (Phazotron website)
Zhemchoug was developed by Phazotron in
cooperation with China for J-10 and FC-1 projects, its a version of
the Zhuk-M with Chinese IFF and other changes. Substantially lighter
than Zhuk at just 180kg, with equal or better capabilities. Its
planar array antenna helps keep down costs and weight compared to
phased array designs. It detects simultaneously 20 targets, selects
the most dangerous 4 of them, tracks and attacks them. Proposed for
Detection range: 80 km, lock-on range 60 km.
RP-35 was a Zhuk derivative with a phased-array
radar, sized for the MiG-35 project at approximately 800mm diameter.
Range against a 3 sq m RCS target is 140km headon, 65km pursuit. TWS
of 24 targets was expected.
Current status uncertain.
Zhuk-MS is an Su-27 sized version of Zhuk-M.
Peak power is increased to 6 kW and average power to 1.5 kW. The
antenna diameter is enlarged to 960 mm with 37dB gain.
Scanning zone is ±20, ±30, or ±60° in azimuth and 2 or 4 bars in
elevation. Scanning limits are ±90° , +60/-40° in elevation.
of detection/track angle in azimuth and two or four bars in
elevation (+60/-40° maximum).
The maximum range was quoted as 140 km headon, and 50 km in
tailchase. In flight testing in 2004 a range of 200km (80km in
tailchase) was demonstrated against an 'armed Su-27' type target (15
sq m RCS), which implies actual figures for a standard 5 sq m RCS
target would be 150km headon, 60km in tailchase.
The radar can track 10 targets simultaneously and can engage 4 to
6 targets at once with R-77 missiles. It introduced
synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) modes (3 m resolution) and
terrain-following modes in the air-to-ground role.
Zhuk-MS is currently tested on the Su-27KUB
Zhuk-MSF / Sokol
OKB: Phazotron NIIR
Zhuk-MSF non-equidistant phased
Zhuk-MSF is the most up to date radar design by Phazotron. Sokol
uses a non-equidistant rather than the traditional linear radar
field distribution, which, Phazotron says, allows a fivefold radar
cost reduction over a traditionally designed phased array radar. The
production radar will have a 980mm antenna diameter (37dB gain) and
weigh 275kg. The radar tracks 24 targets, automatically selecting
and engaging the most dangerous 6 to 8 of them. Its electronic beam
steering will give ±70° spatial coverage in both axes. Power output
is 8kW peak, 2 - 3kW average. It is designed for high reliability,
and is frequency agile with LPI and anti ECM features. Phazotron
says it will be capable of interleaving between air-to-air and
Velocity search: 245km head-on vs fighter target.(This figure is
no longer quoted- the mode may have been removed)
Range-while-search, lookup mode: 180-190km head-on / 80km tail-on
vs fighter target.
Range-while-search, lookdown mode : 170km head-on / 60km tail-on
vs fighter target.
Track-while-scan mode: 150km head-on vs fighter target.
Against a large target such as a bomber or AWACS aircraft
detection range comfortably exceeds